|John Livingstone (c.1770-1838?) was Surgeon of the East India Company's medical service in China. His first visit there was in about 1793. A second trip lasted from 1803 to 1827 (?) In 1817 he was elected Corresponding Member of the Horticultural Society, and three years later he had a dispensary for the Chinese at Macao.|
on the Difficulties which have existed in the Transportation of Plants
from China to England, and Suggestions for obviating them" (written
and read 1819, pub. 1820):
In this letter I propose to...
[make] such observations as have occurred to me during the last
twenty-five years, in which I have been more or less conversant with the
| "Account of the Method of Dwarfing
Trees and Shrubs, as practised by the Chinese, including their Plan of
Propagation from Branches" (written and read 1820, pub. 1822):
However much a correct taste may depreciate
the art of dwarfing Trees and Shrubs, no doubt can be well entertained
that the subject possesses some attractions to physiologists, since it
may, in several respects, extend our information regarding the laws of
1 Livingstone, John
"Observations on the Difficulties which have existed in the Transportation
of Plants from China to England, and suggestions for obviating them," Transactions
of the Horticultural Society of London, Vol. III, 1819, pp. 421-429;
Also partially cited in Bretschneider, Emil, M.D. History of European
Botanical Discoveries in China (Leipzig: Zentral-Antiquariat; 1981,
reprint of the original 1898 edition), pg. 266-267;
cf. Bretschneider Botanicon sinicum (as Article III in "Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society," 1881, New Series Vol. XVI, Part I, Shanghai, 1882, specifically pp. 18-230, "Notes on Chinese Botany from Native and Western Sources"), pg. 106: "Although the common cultivated plants are known under the same Chinese names all over the Empire, many other plants, especially drugs, go under different local names in different properties. Li Shi chen, the author of the [Ben Cao Gang Mu (1596), the most important native Chinese work ever compiled on Materia medica and natural History], and other authors before him, have attempted to bring these synonyms together, but perhaps they have not always been correct in their identifications. In some instances also the same Chinese names are applied to distinct plants in different parts of China."
2 Livingstone, John
"Account of the Method of Dwarfing Trees and Shrubs, as practised by the Chinese, including their Plan of Propagation from
Branches,"Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, Vol. IV, 1822, pp. 224-231;
Cited in Bretschneider History, pg. 267, which states the
article is "dated Macao, 1820." In History, pg. 225 and Bretschneider
Botanicon sinicum, pg. 121 it is stated that
Rev. Rob Morrison was one of the first English sinologists,
a resident of Macao since 1807. He accompanied the 1816-17 Embassy to Peking as principal interpreter. In 1822 Morrison
published an English-Chinese dictionary.
Account is exerpted in Kenrick, William The New American Orchardist, or an account of the most valuable varieties of fruit (Boston: Carter, Hendee, and Co. and Russell, Odiorne and Co.; 1833), pg. xxx, or pp. 47-48 in the 1848 edition.
Account is also printed in its entirety in The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs (Boston), Vol. XXIX, May, 1863, pp. 183-184.
The use of ants is also mentioned in Hansen, Albert A. "Dwarfed plants, they are normal in all but size," Nature Magazine, August 1930, pg. 130. Note: termites are sometimes also known as "white ants."See also Abel, Tiffany, Sirr, and Hickok.