The Pines and Firs of Japan
by Andrew Murray, F.L.S. (1863, reprinted with additions and corrections to the 1862 edition)
includes these lines:
(in the section about Pinus massoniana):
The art of the Japanese has exhausted itself in the cultivation of these pines.
They clip and cut them in all manner of ways, they stretch the branches like a fan
upon horizontal espaliers, or give to the branches so distorted the form of a flat
plate. In that artificial culture extremes meet; -- surprise is equally sought
to be gained by specimens of immense size, as by others reduced to the most minute
proportions. During Siebold's sojourn at Ohosaka he went to see the celebrated
Pine before the Theehaus Naniwaja, of which the branches artificially extended have
a circuit of 135 paces; on the other hand they showed him at Jedo a dwarf tree planted
in a lacquered box, of which the branches did not occupy more than two square inches.
Great progress has been made in Japan in the art of grafting and budding different
Conifers upon each other, an art so much practiced that it has a name for itself both
in China and Japan. In Japanese it is called Isugiki, and in Chinese Sessiho.
Siebold saw dwarf trees on which they had united, by grafting, the greater part of the
species and varieties of Pine cultivated in Japan. (pg. 31)
1 Murray, Andrew, F.L.S. The Pines and Firs of Japan Reprinted with additions and corrections, from the Proceedings of the Royal Horticultural Society, 1862, London: Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars; 1863), pp. 31 and 92.