(bonsai, bonseki, bonkei, saikei, penjing, pentsai, suiseki)

Pre-1800, Part III



1      Bretschneider, Emil M.D.   Botanicon sinicum (as Article III in "Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society," 1881, New Series Vol. XVI, Part I, Shanghai, 1882, specifically pp. 18-230, "Notes on Chinese Botany from Native and Western Sources") , pp. 79-80; Liang, Amy The Living Art of Bonsai (New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.; 1992), pg. 102; Itō Ihei  A Brocade Pillow, Azaleas of Old Japan (New York/Tokyo: Weatherhill; 1984.  Translation by Kaname Kato), pg. 144, which mentions that "the Chinese plantsman [Guo] Tuotuo has stated that it is harmful to transplant too frequently, and he is correct."; Yi, O-nyoung Smaller Is Better, Japan's Mastery of the Miniature (Tokyo: Kodansha International, Ltd.; 1982.  First English edition 1984), pg. 88 which states that masters of bonsai during the Edo period (1600-1868) were called "camels."  "Camel" was a term used for people with hunchbacks.  Its association with bonsai came from a reference in Chinese literature to a hunchback who had mastered the art of tree cultivation.  Is the reference perhaps to the Chinese Guo Tuotuo, known in Japan as Uekiya and acknowledged by island sources during the Edo period? ; "Liu Zongyuan (Liu Tsung-Yuan)," ; "Introduction," ; "Liu Zongyuan," ; "Guangxi," which would place Guo in the 9th century;  Chen, Jo-shui  Liu Tsung-yüan and Intellectual Change in T'ang China, 773-819 (Cambridge University Press; 1992), pp. 32-33, 192-193.  RJB could not find any reference to Guo in this slim but deep work.; Nienhauser, Jr., William H. et al  Liu Tsung-yüan (NY: Twayne Publishers, Inc.; 1973), pp. 88-89; The most notable quote from Swislocki, Mark  Culinary nostalgia: regional food culture and the urban experience in Shanghai (Stanford University Press; 2008), pg. 59, and Footnote 109 which we could not preview there; A copy of what is apparently the entire sketch can be found in Reilly, Kevin  Worlds of History, A Comparative Reader, Vol. 1: To 1550 (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s; 2004.  Second Edition.), pp 274, article from 275-276 ( and all the great and wealthy residents and When a tree is planted quotes are from here).  Reprinted by Reilly with permission from Liu Tsung-Yuan, “Camel Kuo the Gardener,” in An Anthology of Chinese Literature: From Early Times to the Fourteenth Century, ed. and trans. by Cyril Birch (New York: Grove Press, 1965), pp. 258-259.  RJB is endeavoring to get permission to reprint the entire biographical sketch on this site.  Other references to the 3-volume treatise have not yet been located.  This work quote is as Footnote 10 in Willis, Rick J.  The History of Allelopathy (The Netherlands: Springer; 2007), pg. 62.  See Laufer note for more on Ku Chin T'u Shu Chi Ch'eng [Gu Jin Tu Shu Ji Cheng] at bottom here.

2      Stein, Rolf A.  The World in Miniature (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press; 1990), pp. 37 and 39, Note 76 on pg. 284; per "Chronology of Tofu Worldwide, Part I" by William Shurtleff ( ), "965 A.D. - Tofu is first mentioned in China in a document, the Ch'ing I Lu [Anecdotes, simple and exotic], by T'ao Ku."; per "Ancient Chinese Technology - Matches" ( ), sulphur-impregnated sticks of pinewood are described in the book entitled Records of the Unworldly and the Strange written about 950 by T'ao Ku; a Ming painting entitled T'ao Ku Presenting a Lyric to Ch'in Jo-lan (per ) is based on the tale of the author's humiliation in retaliation for his rudeness to a Five Dynasties Southern Tang ruler to whom he was an envoy; per the Library of Congress Online Catalog,, a 1985 edition of this work from Beijing is 147 pp. long, LCC #86192472. 

3      Stein, pg. 39; "Structural Carpentry in the Yingzao Fashi" by Andrew I-kang Li & Jin-Yeu Tsou,, which gives Li's dates as c.1065-1110.  For biographical information on Li Jie, see Else Glahn, "Li Chieh," in Sung Biographies, vol. 2, edited by Herbert Franke (Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1976), pp. 523-529 ; Liu, Heping "The Water Mill and Northern Song imperial patronage of art, commerce, and science - China," The Art Bulletin, Dec. 2002, ; "A Hundred Harvests: The History of Asian Studies at Berkeley, Chinese Collections, ", gives the entry as  "Li, Chieh, 1036-1110.  Li Ming-chung Ying Tsao Fa Shih ( Building Standards of Li Ming-chung ) Shanghai, 1929. 8 vols. in case." ; per "Guide to the Research Collections of the New York Public Library, Architecture,", there also exists an "exquisitely produced 1925 edition."; "Chinese book shows art of building," ; calligraphy from footnote 6, ; Li, Andrew I-kang "The Yingzhao fashi in the information age,"'Yingzao%20English'; lack of any large-scale physical testimony quote slightly paraphrased from pg. 92 of Clunas, Craig  Superfluous Things, Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press; 1991. Paperback edition 2004).

4      Schafer, Edward H.  Tu Wan's Stone Catalogue of Cloudy Forest (Floating World Edition; 2005. First published in 1961 by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles), pp. 3, 14-16, 17, 19-20, 26, 30-31, 37, 54, 56-57, 58, 61, 77, 97, 99; "Sermons in Stone" from 'Four Winds' (Singapore Airlines), sent by Donald Sanborn of Tokyo, in Bonsai Magazine, BCI, Vol. XII, No. 6, July/Aug. 1973, pg. 12, which says "114 types of stones"; Hu, pg. 130, says "over 116 kinds of rock"; Li, H.L.  Chinese flower arrangement (Philadelphia, PA: Hedera House; 1956) pg. 93; Lin, Kuo-cheng  Miniature Bonsai (Taipei: Hilit Publishing Co., Ltd.; 1987.  First English Edition, 1995), pp. 29-30; Liang, pg. 103; The objects and Dwarf trees quotes are from Stein, pg. 36, There are high peaks quote from pg. 37, These highly prized and following quote pg. 35, On another stone quote pg. 311, note 246, and pg. 111; Little, Steven  Spirit Stones of China (Chicago: Art Institute with University of California Press; 1999), pg. 16 gives the compilation dates as c.1127-1132, and has excerpts on pp. 16, 21-22; Hu, Kemin   Scholars' Rocks in Ancient China: The Suyuan Stone Catalogue (Trunbull, CT: Weatherhill; 2002), pg. vii; Lingbi info per pp. 21 and 23 of Mowry, Robert D.  World Within Worlds, The Richard Rosenblum Collection of Chinese Scholars' Rocks (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums; 1997), pg. 52 (note 7 mentioning a Shanghai edition 1935-40, with a reprint from Beijing in 1985), 58, 151, "The largest of these" quote from 246 (source given as Hay, [[John  Kernels of Energy, Bones of Earth: The Rock in Chinese Art (New York: China House Gallery; ©1985 China Institute of America),]] pg. 22, with the original Chinese text in Yunlin shipu, juan 1, p. 62, per 247 note 7), and 313 and 314 which list that Du Wan's work is in Huang Binhong and Deng Shi, eds.  Meishu congshu [Collected works on fine arts] series, photo reprint of the 1947, 4th rev. ed., Taipei, n.d., vol. 15, 3/9: 57-114, and in Wang Fukang, ed.  Guwan wenhua congshu [Collected writings on cultural antiquities] series, Shanghai, 1993, pp. 99-713, and also in Yang Jialuo, ed.  Yishu congbian [Collected editions on art] series, Taipei, 1974, ji I, vol. 35.

5      Gernet, Jacques  Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion 1250-1276 (New York: The Macmillan Company; 1962.  Translated by H. M. Wright), The intense commercial activity quote is from pg. 49 with footnote 60 on pg. 58, The fashionable taverns quote is from pp. 49-50 with footnote 61 on pg. 58, and the Festival of the Dead quote is from pg. 192, with note from pg. 191 and footnote 26 from pg. 216.  The guild information is from pp. 87-88, derived from material (per footnotes 34, 35, 39, and 40 on pg. 111) in the MLL, XIX, 3, p. 239; XIII, 4, pp. 239-40; XIX, 4, p. 300; and XII, 3, pp. 238-9.  Other info from pp. 14, 15-16, 18, 19, 22-23, 25, 27, 30, 38, 51-52, 84, 85, 228-231, and 240.  Per pg. 122, "The region around Hangchow itself, though, also produced some beautiful flowers: nearly ten kinds of winter and autumn peonies, over seventy varieties of chrysanthemums, and numerous varieities of daphne, magnolia and orchids, not to mention the blossom of a wide range of fruit trees, such as plum, pear, peach, pomegranate and cherry." (MLL, XVII, 3, pp. 285-9, per note 15 on pg. 140 of Garnet)  This is listed here to give an indication of possible material for flowering dwarfs in the region -- any of these is not specifically listed to our knowledge.  Pg. 172's "These pharmacies had, in the traditional manner, a dried calabash as sign which hung over the door." reminds of another use of a gourd we have seen. Of the 363 footnotes in Gernet, 75 (21%) are direct quotes from MLL and another 20 footnotes (5%) include material from MLL.  The first quote above is summarized with the phrase "dwarf evergreens" called "bonsai" in Wood, Francis Did Marco Polo go to China? (Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1996. First American edition), pg. 71; "Song Research Tools: VI. Indexes and Concordances to Sung Texts, ; "The Water Mill and Northern Song imperial patronage of art, commerce, and science - China" by Heping Lu, The Art Bulletin, Dec. 2002, note 34, ; "Marco Polo on China's Royal Palace Gardens (in Beijing and Hangchow)", http"//, gives a publication date of 1274, as also does "Brief Discussion on 'Du Nuo' by You, Xiuling, ; Luo Tongbing's translation of "Decorating Lanterns at the Lantern Festival,", footnote 8, gives the translation of the title as Record of the Golden Millet Dream; per note 34 in The Water Mill and Northern Song Imperial Patronage of Art, Commerce, and Science" by Heping Liu in Art Bulletin, Dec. 2002, Vol. 84 Issue 4, p. 566, there is a recent edition of MLL (Hangzhou: Zhejiang remin chubanshe, 1980).

6      Hu, Yunhua  Chinese Penjing, Miniature Trees and Landscapes (Portland, OR: Timber Press; 1987), pg. 130; cf. Wu, Yee-Sun  Man Lung Artistic Pot Plants (Hong Kong: Wing-Lung Bank Ltd.; 1969, 1974.  Second edition), pg. 62, who states that "Writer Chao Hsi-kok describes 'grotesque rocks' in his essay collection."; Koreshoff, Deborah R.  Bonsai: Its Art, Science, History and Philosophy (Brisbane, Australia: Boolarong Publications; 1984) echoes this on pg. 3; Clunas, Superfluous Things, pg. 9; Liang, pg. 102, which has the Sung Dynasty quote; per "New Directions in Chinese Furniture Connoisseurship: Early Traditional Furniture" by Curtis Evarts (, "The qin ('zither') table appears as an established category by the Song dynasty, when, in the Dongtian Qinglu Ji (Records of the Pure Registers of the Cavern Heaven), Zhao Xigu (1170-1242) documented its exemplary characteristics." per the Library of Congress Online Catalog,, a 1993 edition of this work from Shanghai is 910 pp. long, LCC #95462080; Mowry, pg. 36 note 25, 53 note 19, 164, 166-167 note 4, and 313 and 315 which list that Zhao's work is in Huang Binhong and Deng Shi, eds.  Meishu congshu [Collected works on fine arts] series, photo reprint of the 1947, 4th rev. ed., Taipei, n.d., vol. 5, 1/9: 221-78, and the "Guaishi ban" [Fantastic rock section] is excerpted in Wang Fukang, ed.  Guwan wenhua congshu [Collected writings on cultural antiquities] series, Shanghai, 1993, pg. 637; Laufer, Berthold  Chinese Pottery of the Han Dynasty (Leiden: E.J. Brill, Ltd., 1909; 1962 reprint by Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc.), pp. 93, 110, 179-180, states this work also describes ancient bronze pieces such as cooking vessels, ladles, and bo shan lu; Jenyns, R. Soame & William Watson F.S.A.  Chinese Art II (NY: Rizzoli; 1966, 1980), pg. 61, which gives the Sung Imperial membership to Chao Hsi-ku -- which would then be spelled as Zhao Xigu -- quoting his description of variegating the color of new bronzes to imitate the patina on ancient bronze vessels.

7      Kenko, Yoshida  Essays in Idleness: The Tsurezuregusa of Kenko (New York: Columbia University Press; 1967.  Translated by Donald Keene), pp. xiii-xv, xx, xxii, Chapter 154 quote from pp. 136-137, chapter 10 quote from pg. 10.  Kenko lived from 1283 to 1350; Nippon Bonsai Association Classic Bonsai of Japan (Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International; 1989), pg. 141; Yashiroda, Kan  Bonsai, Japanese Miniature Trees (Newton, MA: C.T. Branford Co./London: Faber and Faber; 1960), pg. 19; Papinot, E. Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan (Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc.; 1972.  Reprint of original 1910 work.), pp. 156, 756; Liang, pg. 107, lists Kenko's essay as "Picking Natural Plants."; cf. Hull, George F.   Bonsai For Americans (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc.; 1964), pg. 22, and Koreshoff, pg. 7, and Shufunotomo, Editors of The Essentials of Bonsai (Portland, OR: Timber Press; 1982), pg. 9: "'To appreciate and find pleasure in curiously curved potted trees is to love deformity.' Yoshida was, to be sure writing only of the enthusiasm for bonsai, not of its appreciation."; per a post to the Internet Bonsai Club by Chris Cochrane, Reply #10 on Aug. 6, 2005,, " Essays... was a sacred teaching handed down from master to student through a limited chain of poets (some famous) until published in the early 17th century.  It had modest influence before then.   At that time the proponents of cha-no-yu's wabi aesthetic (not yet fully revived by Rikyu's heirs but recognized by important National Learning leaders) needed to see it merged with the dominant Neo-Confucian ideology of Hayashi Razan and his followers.  Shinto advocates were seeking a place in Japan's ideologies affecting art understanding."  
         See also the recent on-line edition of the 1914 translation by William N. Porter, with Section 154 on pp. 120-121 (which specifies "...all his dwarf trees that he had cultivated in little pots.") and section 10, pp. 15-16.
         "Suketomo, Fujiwara (Hino) (1290-1332).  Son of Tokimitsu.  Consultant (1321); provisional middle counselor (1322).  With Hino Toshimoto, one of two key figures in Go-Daigo's anti-bakufu plans.  Arrested and sent to Kamakura in 1324; exiled to Sado Island in the Japan Sea in 1325.  Put to death in Sado in 1332." Per The Clear Mirror: A Chronicle of the Japanese Court During the Kamakura Period (1185-1333) translation by George W. Perkins (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press; 1998), pp. 300, 307.
         A recent review of Kenko, his times, and contemporaries can be found at Morrow, Lance  "The Timeless Wisdom of Kenko," Smithsonian Magazine, June 2011,  The text from Chapter 10 is shown on the second page of the 4-page article.

8     Stein, pp. 37, notes pp. 281-283, drawing of the inkwell as Fig. 18 on pg. 38.; Zhao, Qingquan Penjing: Worlds of Wonderment (Athens, GA: Venus Communications, LLC; 1997), pg. 40, states that "The great Song painter Mi Fu was absolutely infatuated with stones, and he left numerous excellent observations regarding their appreciation."; Lisowski, F.P. "ITAG - Prehistoric and Early Historic Trepanation,", states that the work also mentions that "Arabic physicians, of which there had been many in China since T'ang times, could open the skull and extract worms."

9      Little, pg. 23, which cites David, Sir Percival  Chinese Connoisseurship: The Ko Ku Yao Lun (New York and Washington: Praeger; 1971).  We have finally been able to consult David's work, the quotes from Item I and V are from pp. 12 and 163-165, respectively, with notes from pp. xliv-xlv, lix, liii, lv, 3, 6, 7; Clunas, Superfluous Things, pp. 11-13, the latter page stating that "it was significantly expanded in a republication of 1459." Further down the page it is mentioned that this work saw print in four republications in various forms between mid-16th century and 1600, forming "part of an explosion of publishing interest in the fields of what might loosely be called luxury consumption, encompassing not just high-status and high-value works like painting, calligraphy and early bronzes, but also a whole range of contemporary products necessary to the presentation of self in elite life."; per "New Directions in Chinese Furniture Connoisseurship: Early Traditional Furniture" by Curtis Evarts ( ), "In Ge Gu Yao Lun ( The Essential Criteria of Antiquities ), published in 1388, Cao Zhao noted that the best qin tables were made from Guogong tomb bricks."; per " A Special Exhibition of the NPM's Ancient Inkstones Illustrated in the Imperial Catalogue Hsi-ch'ing Yen-p'u " ( ), "[One of t]he most famous [of the numerous Ming pamphlets about inkstones is] "Lun ku-yen" (Discussions on old inkstones)" from the Ko-ku Yao-lun (Essential Criteria of Antiquities) by Ts'ao Chao..."; Elman, Benjamin A. "Natural Studies, Philosophy, and Philology in Late Imperial China, 1600-1800 - Draft,", which states that Cao was active 1387-99; Mowry, pg. 313 which lists that Cao Zhao's work is in Congshu jicheng series, Shanghai, 1935-40, photo reprint, Beijing, 1985, and excerpted in Wang Fukang, ed.  Guwan wenhua congshu [Collected writings on cultural antiquities] series, Shanghai, 1993, pp. 776-82.

10        Clunas, Craig  Fruitful Sites, Garden Culture in Ming Dynasty China (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press; 1996), pp. 16-18, 62;  Clunas, Superfluous Things, pg. 136 notes that "Luxury shops and businesses associated with the antiques trade clustered together, as in the famous Zhuanzhu Lane in Suzhou and along the banks of the canal linking Suzhou to the nearby beauty spot of Tiger Hill to the north-west, a popular resort of the well-to-do."; also seems plausible quote from pg. 100;  Wood, Frances   Did Marco Polo go to China? (Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1996, first American edition), pg. 134.

11       Clunas, Fruitful Sites, pg. 101; per "Ming Transformation of the Tusi System:  'Gai-Tu Gui-Liu'," and "Session 90: Images of the Frontier: Travel Writings from the Late Imperial Period,", Tian also wrote Xingbian Jiwen ( Memoirs of Patrolling the Border ) in 1560 and Yanjiao jiwen following travels to southwest China; "Experiencing the West Lake,", whose Bibliography lists "Tian Rucheng  Visiting and Seeing West Lake: A Gazetteer (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1998)."; Is hai tong the same as Hai Tong Pi = Erythrina variegata, Sea Vine Bark?,

12       Clunas, Fruitful Sites, pp. 67, 101.  The bibliography on pg. 230 lists a 1987 edition from Beijing.; per "Daoist Folk Customs,", Gu's book Records of the Guests Chatting, vol. 7 contains information on divinatory sticks; per, he also had a 1614 work Lanzhen caotang ji ( Collection from the Lanzhen Studio ); per "the Chinese official in the secondary capital of Nanjing Gu Qiyuan gives a description of Western books which he must have seen at the Jesuit mission in Nanjing.  He is especially amazed by the leather binding, the perspective drawings used in illustrations, and the shading applied to make faces and figures appear three-dimensional."  A 1987 reprint was made in Beijing by Zhonghua shuju.

13      Little, Stephen  Spirit Stones of China(Chicago, IL: The Art Institute of Chicago and University of California Press; 1999), pp. 22-23; "Literacy, writing and education in Chinese culture: bibliography by Barend ter Haar,", pg. 11 of 23 printed, "1. Traditional China, g. Libraries&collecting, Inoue Mutsuo" book which gives the Chinese title as the diary.  This may be a different title than the "Ranking" work listed with given quotes in Little; Clunas, Superfluous Things, pp. 66, 81, 104-105, 131-132; Standaert, Nicolas  Yang Tingyun, Confucian and Christian in Late Ming China: His Life and Thought (Leiden: E.J. Brill; 1988), pg. 28; Mowry, pp. 22-23 gives the list as being published in Li Rihua's Zitaoxuan zazhui [Miscellanea from the Purple Peach Studio] of circa 1617; also pg. 36 note 25; per Chinnery, John  Treasures of China, The Glories of the Kingdom of the Dragon (London: Duncan Baird Publishers Ltd.; 2008), pp. 142-143, "Of central importance in the history of Chinese porcelain is Jingdezhen in eastern China's Jiangxi province.  Its development as a porcelain center was due to there being large deposits of key raw materials nearby, such as kaolin (China clay) and feldspar (China stone), as well as its position on the Yangzi River and near the Boyang Lake, which made it easy to transport finished goods by water.  Ceramic production in the area started in the Han era, but it was in the early Ming that Jingdezhen became the preeminent center after the imperial kilns were established there."  "The imperial kilns employed production lines, each piece passing through several hands.  One craftsman would draw the first color line under the rim, another would trace the design, which a third would then paint.  Artists would specialize, one in mountains and water, another in birds and animals, and so on.  Embossing, engraving, and openwork carving would likewise be entrusted to separate hands.  Up to seventy workmen might be involved before the pieces were ready for firing."  With the development of new techniques in the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, the order of these processes might be changed, depending on the style of the vessel being made.  ...Very fine translucent vessels, such as eggshell porcelain, were shaved thin on a lathe.  Sometimes large pieces were produced in parts and luted together after firing."  "There were also private kilns at Jingdezhen, the products of which were more varied in quality but at times matched those of the imperial ones."  "The city continues to dominate ceramic production in China today and is also a major tourist attraction."; per Jackson, Anna and Amin Jaffer (ed.)  Encounters, The Meeting of Asia and Europe, 1500-1800 (London: V&A Publications; 2004), pg. 371, Note 17.11 "The huge kiln complexes at Jingdezhen were situated north-east of the European trading port of Canton, in Jiangxi province.  They were the major supplier of Chinese porcelain to both domestic and world markets from the fourteenth century onwards.  Regular cargoes of porcelain were transported from Jingdezhen to Canton by water, using an extensive network of canals, rivers, lakes and an inland sea-coastal route." And pg. 231, "At Jingdezhen an experienced workforce was willing to imitate whatever forms [i.e., patterns and designs] foreign trade demanded, for it had been satisfying South-East Asian and Middle Eastern markets for more than 500 years before Europeans arrived.  Export porcelain in whatever forms was not deemed useful or attractive, however, as a local scholar called Lan Pu wrote in the late eighteenth century: 'Foreign vessels are specially manufactured for export and sold by merchants in Canton.  Foreign devils fill up their markets with them.  Their shapes are very odd and every year different designs are wanted.'"  Per Lim, Sunamita  Chinese Style: Living in Beauty and Prosperity (Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith; 2006), pg. 43, "On his 1712 visit [Jesuit priest Perè d'Entrecolles] encountered the million plus inhabitants of Jingdezhen, from the very young to the very old, engaged in assembly-line techniques producing mass quantities of export porcelain, which day and night stoked the fires of the city's 3,000 kilns.  British authors Margaret Jourdain and R. Soame Jenyns wrote in Chinese Export Art in the Eighteenth Century that these activities involved 'the blind, young and old, women and children, collecting firewood, tending the furnaces and grinding the colours' -- all of which gave the town and the whirling flames of its kilns 'the appearance of a burning town' at night."  Arlene M. Palmer's A Winterthur Guide to Chinese Export Porcelain is quoted in this work also: "'More than 60 million pieces of porcelain reached the West before 1800, creating and filling a need ... [that] went beyond mere practical concerns to an emotional level.'  Paradoxically, the fantasy of acquiring china from a country few had visited all the more fueled its marketing allure."

14      Stein, pp. 26-28 have a detailed excerpt from, notes pp. 280-281, pp. 49-50.  Per pg. 37, contains a reference to the above Zhuo-geng-lu { Cho-keng-lu }; Hu, Yunhua, pg. 130, which also lists "Wen Zhenhen's Pen Wan Pian (Article on Pen Wan) in Zhang Wu Zhi"; cf. Liang, pg. 103, "T'u Hsiang's Study of Bonsai Trays (K'ao-p'an-yu-lu), which features a commentary chapter on 'Amusement Bonsai.'  In the History of Plant Cultivation (Ch'ang-wu-chih) by the late Ming Dynasty artist Wen Chen-heng, there are two scrolls in the section on 'Amusement Bonsai' that provide complete details about the design of interior gardens and the cultivating of bonsai."; Li, pp. 63,80; per CAA reviews of Craig Clunas' Pictures and Visuality in Early Modern China,, "Even Wen Zhenheng (1585-1645), who elsewhere is represented as critical of figurative subjects on luxury objects, wrote about the types of narrative subjects appropriate as gifts or for other occasions."; per "Chinese Hardwood Furniture" ( ), "In the guide to elite interior design 'Zhang Wu Zhi' (Treatise on superfluous things) by Wen Zhenheng (1585-1645), furniture made the previous day was described as 'Gu' (Antique) meaning 'morally enobling', or 'Jin' (Modern).  Traditional Chinese attitudes towards chronological dating and authenticity were more flexible than those of the West."; "Tu Long,"  His birthyear as well as degree year are given as 1577.  Several copies of this mini-bio repeat this error without question; Clunas, Fruitful Sites, pp. 70, 105, 119-120, 129-130. 'The garden' as a coherent site quote from pg. 174. Wen's material quote from pg. 171.  One of the longest sections quote is from pg. 171 also.  The bibliography on pg. 236 lists an annotated 1984 edition from Nanjing; Wen demanded quote from Wang, Joseph Cho The Chinese Garden (New York: Oxford University Press; 1998), pg. 21, which translates the title as Notes on life's trivialities; Hu, Kemin  Scholars' Rocks, pg. 152 has publication date as 1634; Mowry, pg. 91, and 313 and 315 which list that Wen Zhenheng's work is in Huang Binhong and Deng Shi, eds.  Meishu congshu [Collected works on fine arts] series, photo reprint of the 1947, 4th rev. ed., Taipei, n.d., vol. 15, 3/9: 115-268, and excerpted in Wang Fukang, ed.  Guwan wenhua congshu [Collected writings on cultural antiquities] series, Shanghai, 1993, pp. 783-784; Clunas, Superfluous Things, pp. 20, 22-27, 38, 41, 43, 51-52, 53, 175.  Pp. 28-30 state that Tu Long was "a personal friend of Wang Zhideng, elderly patron of the young Wen Zhenheng in Nanjing in the early 1600s.  The possibility of a direct encounter between Tu Long and Wen Zhenheng in Nanjing in the last years of the former's life certainly cannot be ruled out."  Textual analysis of Desultory Remarks and Treatise does show some similar material in both, possibly derived from a third work by a mutual acquaintance from which they both drew as a model without specific attribution.  They are less an authentically original voice than the mouthpiece of a consensus (pg. 64).  The 1984 edition mentioned above is listed here as a fully critical and annotated one.  Another kind of commodity quote from pg. 118.  Pg. 51 states that "A native English example of the genre, Henry Peacham's Compleat Gentleman of 1622 (and, thus closely contemporary with the Treatise on Superfluous Things) is also willing to allude but not to describe.  His Chapter 15, 'Of reputation and carriage' includes advise on clothing, but again only in terms of the broadest generalities.  His language elsewhere, like that of all early modern European writing on the question of luxury consumption, is that of morality and of humanist idealism and not in any way comparable to the material precision of the Chinese writings."  Pg. 58 includes "One particular type of geographical discrimination well represented in the Treatise on Superfluous Things is that of exotica, of manufactured goods from beyond the boundaries of the Chinese empire.  This was quite different from the importing of exotic raw materials, which had a history of centuries, if not millennia.  Nor were these merely occasional, chance curiosities in the later sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but a systematically imported and significant sector of luxury consumption.  The list of 'tribute goods' (as international trade was disguised in Ming official ideology) given for the Wanli period in the Riben kao, Study of Japan, by Li Yangong and Hao Jie lists:  'sprinkled gold cupboards, sprinkled gold writing tables, painted gold cosmetic boxes, sprinkled gold portable boxes, plastered gold painted screens.'  Taken cumulatively, the evidence for the prevalence, above all, of Japanese luxury goods in the fashionable late Ming interior is a powerful corrective to simple characterizations of Ming culture as 'nationalistic', or relatively unreceptive to foreign influences.
     "Despite the fact that for much of the sixteenth century coastal China and the prosperous Jiangnan region were preyed on by the wokou, 'Japanese pirates' (many of whom were, in fact, renegade Chinese under Japanese leadership), the minds of the rich do not seem to have poisoned against Japanese objects in their own homes..."  Pg. 100 mentions that "Archaic bronzes were used as incense burners or as vases, the belief being prevalent that their long interment in the soil gave them miraculous properties of preserving the life of cut flowers and plants.  There is plenty of textual and pictorial evidence that this was done, in spite of Wen Zhenheng's dictum that: 'The bronzes of the The Three Ages, Qin and Han dynasties, and incense burners of Guan, Ge, Ding or Longquan ware, are fit objects of connoisseurly enjoyment (jian shang).  They are not suitable for everyday use."  Are there any portrayals of dwarf potted trees potted in ancient bronzes?  Editions of Tu Long's Kao pan yu shi were published in 1937 by Shang wu yin shu guan, in 1997 by Qi Lu shu she chu ban she, and in 2002 by Shanghai gu ji chu ban she.

15      Hu, Yunhua, pg. 130; Sirén, Osvald   Gardens of China (New York: The Ronald Press Company; 1949), pp. 76-77; Little, pg. 17 has an extensive excerpt from, a shorter one on pg. 25, and pg. 111 also gives the publication date as 1613 with the title translated as Stone compendium of the plain garden, and lists a 1997 reprint from Zhongguo shudian chubanshe in Beijing; Hay, pg. 97; Mowry, pp. 49-50, 52 mentions a 1933 Beijing photo reprint and a Japanese reprint from Tokyo, 1923-24, edited by Ōmura Seigai, 172, note 1 on 173-174, and 313 and 314 which list that Lin Youlin's work is in Wang Fukang, ed.  Guwan wenhua congshu [Collected writings on cultural antiquities] series, Shanghai, 1993, pp. 847-938; Hu, Kemin  Scholars' Rocks, pp. vii, 1, 5, 6, 71.  Per pg. 152, date is 1613.

16     Hu, Yunhua, pg. 130; Bretschneider, pg. 70; Liang, pg. 103; Métailié, Georges  "Concepts of Nature in Traditional Chinese Materia Medica and Botany (16th to 17th century) [Draft],", gives the alternative title of Er Ru Ting Qun Fang Pu "Treatise on Plants of the Pavilion Er Ru."

17     Hu, Kemin Scholars' Rocks, pp. 3, 152; Mohan Ram, H.Y. "Vision of the mandarins," ; "Ji Cheng," ; "Yuan Ye," ; Ji Cheng, The Craft of Gardens, translated by Alison Hardie, Yale University Press, 1988 (the first complete translation into English) -- RJB is checking into this reference; Mowry, pg. 314 which lists that Ji Cheng's work is annontated and edited by Chen Zhi as Yuanye zhushi [Notes on "Garden design"], Reprint, Beijing, 1981.

18     Naka, John and Richard K. Ota and Kenko Rokkaku   Bonsai Techniques for Satsuki (Ota Bonsai Nursery; 1979), pg. 32, which also states that it was "the first botanical book in Japan"; Nippon Bonsai Association  Classic Bonsai of Japan (Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International; 1989), pg. 148; hachi-ue per Koreshoff, pg. 8; not listed in Bartlett, Harley Harris and Hide Shohara   Japanese Botany During the Period of Wood-block Printing (Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop; 1961. Reprinted from ASA GRAY BULLETIN, N.S. 3: 289-561, Spring, 1961); Bonsai Masterpieces (Nippon Bonsai Taikan "Grand View of Japanese Bonsai and Nature in Four Seasons," Tokyo: Seibundo Shinkosha Publishing Co., Ltd.; 1972, English book, translated by Yuji Yoshimura and Samuel H. Beach), pg. 28, gives title as "Kusadan-Komoku"; "Notes on Antique Chinese Bonsai Pots" by Ikune Sawada, Bonsai Magazine, BCI, September/October 1988, Vol. XXVII, No. 5, pg. 25 gives the author as Gensho Mizuno and renders the quote as "If you are any kind of human beings [sic] , rich or poor, you have to have some satsuki azaleas, nowadays.  Even abalone shells were used to plant satsuki among those who were very poor."  The source of quotations for this article is cited as an article "History of Development of Variety of Trees for Bonsai and Styles from Late Edo to Meiji, Taisho and Showa" by Keiji Murata in "Densho no Bonsai," a special issue of the Magazine Bonsai Sekai, pp. 112-122, October, 1979, Juseki-sha publisher; per Itō Ihei  A Brocade Pillow, pp. xiii, "Between 1681, when the first horticultural book, the Flower-Bed Classification ( Kadan Kōmoku ), appeared and the beginning of the Meiji era in 1868, more than one hundred horticultural books were published [in Japan].  In addition, some fifty books on flower arranging alone appeared."  A 1716 edition by Motokatsu Mizuno and Tanomo Matsui was published by Kashiwaraya Yozaemon, with a reprint in 1890 by Endō Heizaemon.

19     Koreshoff, pg. 4; Bretschneider, pg. 150; Hu, Yunhua, pg. 130.; Liang, pg. 103, which has "Ch'en Hao-tzu"; Lin, pg. 30, which has "Hsu hao-tzu"; Stein, Postscript A, pp. 114-116 has an excellent translation from.  Recently in the province of Wu quote from pg. 115; Cited in'en+Hao-tzu%22&dq=%22Ch'en+Hao-tzu%22&lr=&pgis=1, but there also is a Ch'en Hao-tzu listed from 1783 on pp. 413-4 in A History of Chinese Literature by Herbert Allen Giles.  Lin, pg. 31, which also says that "Chen's book was later introduced to Japan, where it had a significant [sic] influence on Japanese bonsai styles."  Lin says that this was the most interesting volume of the many Qing Dynasty books published on bonsai.  Per Joseph Cho Wang's The Chinese Garden, pp. 23-27, 30, 43, the scholar Chen produced by far the most memorable narratives in his Huajing (Flower mirror) first published in about 1688.  His accounts, which read like an autobiography of a leisurely life, register the fullest extent of his seasonal itinerary in the setting of his naturalistic house garden.  Chen must have been blessed with the good fortune of having a spacious garden at his disposal all year round.  Using his account of a hermit-like life as an example, a residential Chinese garden reflected a happy fit between a naturalistic setting and the pragmatic agenda for a leisurely, artistic, and practical life all the year through.  And stressing the importance of flowers as ingrediants of a garden, Chen declared, 'If there is no good flower in a garden, it will be like a beautiful mansion without a gorgeous woman in it.'  Wang's source for this limited information is Yang Hongxun [1988], pp. 71-72, 'Lue lun Zhongguo Jiangnan gudian zaoyuan yishu' (A Brief discussion on the art of gardening in China's Southern Yangzi river delta), in Jianzhu shi lunwen ji (Essays on the history of architecture) #10, Beijing: Qinghua Daxue chubanshe.  Although there are no references to dwarf trees during the four seasons briefly excerpted here by Wang, 'Autumn" (pg. 25) does include the line: "As noontime was nearing, I played some music on a zither, trained the storks, and played with my curious collection of stones and metal pieces."

20     Stein, pp. 24-26, notes, pp. 279-280, which has the Nowadays quote on pg. 24.  Zhaodai congshu is given without author; Liang, pg. 103, states that there is a detailed account in Liu Luan's Jade Gourd (Yu-shih-hu) of the most common medium and large-sized tray landscapes: the "three friends of winter."  These arrangements of pine trees, bamboo, and plum trees were highly cherished year-round among enthusiasts.;  Zhao, pp. 40-41, states that historian Liu Ruan wrote the essay Wu Shi Hu ("Five Stone Vessel"), has the fish reference as "Some containers are several feet long and contain fish.", and translates the last term as "tiny scenery"; Koreshoff, pg. 4, spells the last term as "shea tzu ching."; Rolston, David L.  Traditional Chinese Fiction and Fiction Commentary: Reading and Writing Between the Lines (Stanford University Press; 1997), pg. 44, which includes the author's dates; Kazantsev, Serguei A. "Chinese block-books and manuscripts in the Russian State Library," notes that "'Zhaodai congshu' (the 1833 edition, 100 volumes) compiled by Zhan Chao (XVII century) [sic] appears on the list of books prohibited in the age of the Qing dynasty and thus has remained in a very small amount of copies."; "Zhaodai congshu bieji" by Zhan Chao is said to include the 1620 "Sanyou qipu" ("Notes on a boardgame for 3 friends") by Zhang Jinde, per; footnote 82 on page 250 of Historian of the Strange: Pu Songling and the Chinese Classical Tale by Judith T. Zeitlin (Stanford University Press; 1993), which also lists the unillustrated rock catalogues in other collectanea such as Shuofu, Tanji congshu, Meishu congshu, and Yushi guqi pulu -- these will be researched further by RJB; Zhaodai congshu was censored but reprinted in 1833, per pg. 257 of Trauma And Transcendence In Early Qing Literature by Wilt L. Idema, Wai-yee Li, and Ellen Widmer (Harvard University Asia Center; 2006); a reprint of the 1833 edition was made in 1990 in Shanghai by Guji chubanshe.

21     Hu, Yunhua, pg. 130; Bretschneider, pp. 70-71; Fan, Fa-ti  British Naturalists in Qing China: Science, Empire, and Cultural Encounter (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press; 2004), pp. 109, 115. 

22      Google Books search, characters translated with Babel Fish.

23      Per the Library of Congress Online Catalog,, 14 leaves, illustrated with woodcuts, LCC #99433348.  Resulted from keyword search for "bonkei."  

24      Google Books search, title taken from introduction; as two-volume Bonsai hyakkeizu by Junsekiken Keikai, c.1785, per the Library of Congress Online Catalog,, chiefly illustrated with woodcuts, LCC #98847210.  Resulted from keyword search for "bonkei."  But see also note 26's title.

25      Zhao, Qingquan, pg. 41; author name and bio per ; Day of Flowers quote per "The Culture of Yangzhou Residential Gardens" by Vena Hrdlicková in Lucie Olivová and Vibeke Bordahl (ed.)  Lifestyle and Entertainment in Yangzhou (Denmark: NIAS - Nordic Institute of Asian Studies; 2009), pp. 85-86, from Li Dou 1963 [1795]:81-82, translation by Olivová ; Finnnane, Antonia  Speaking of Yangzhou: A Chinese City, 1550–1850, a Harvard East Asian Monograph'Li%20Dou%20Yangzhou'; The Grand Canal quote is from Chapter 6, Reenvisioning the Urban Interior: Gardens, Upper Class of Part III Interiors That Projecting The World: Gardens and Proto-Malls, of ""; Fan, Fa-ti, pg. 33; Zhao Qingquan  Penjing: The Chinese Art of Bonsai (Shanghai Press; 2012), pg. 35.

26      Google Books search, imprint date from preface and postscript; see also note 24's title.

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