ALL  THE  PRIMARY  PLANTS  USED  AS  BONSAI
AND  IN  THE  RELATED  ARTS  --
A  TAXONOMIC  ANALYSIS  OF  THE  ASTERIDAE


compiled by Robert J. Baran


This Page Last Updated: July 9, 2017



(General notes at page bottom)

 
Index by Family
Anthophyta
Cycadophyta
Pinophyta
Pteridophyta
Notes
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae I
Magnoliophyta - Asteridae
Magnoliophyta - Caryophyllidae
Magnoliophyta - Dilleniidae
Magnoliophyta - Hamamelididae
Magnoliophyta - Magnoliidae
Magnoliophyta - Ranunculidae
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae II


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Division      Magnoliophyta    :    Ovary-enclosed-seeded flowering plants whose embryos possess two (dicot) leaf-like structures called cotyledons
----- Class      Magnoliopsida
---------- Subclass      Asteridae    :    mostly sympetalous herbs and some trees and shrubs mostly with 2 fused carpels
--------------- Order      Asterales
-------------------- Family      Argophyllaceae, the argophyllum family
------------------------- Genus      Corokia  *  o
------------------------------ Species     buddleioides A.Cunn.       Korokio / Korokio-taranga
------------------------------ Species      cotoneaster Raoul       Wire-netting bush / Corokia
-------------------- Family      Asteraceae, the aster, daisy, or sunflower family (Compositae)   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Artemisia
------------------------------ Species      abrotanum L.       Southernwood / Lad's love / Southern wormwood
------------------------------ Species      absinthium L.       Absinthium / Absinthe or Common or Green ginger or Grand wormwood
------------------------------ Species      tridentata Nutt.       Great basin or Big or Tall sagebrush
------------------------- Genus      Encelia
------------------------------ Species      farinosa Torr. & A.Gray       Brittlebush
------------------------- Genus      Euryops  *
------------------------------ Species      pectinatus (L.) Cass.  (pectinata)        Euryops / Golden daisy bush / Yellow bush daisy
------------------------- Genus      Helichrysum
------------------------------ Species      italicum (Roth) G. Don fil.  (angustifolium)        Curry plant
------------------------- Genus      Nipponanthemum (Chrysanthemum, Leucanthemum)  *
------------------------------ Species      nipponicum (Franch. ex Maxim.) Kitam.       Nippon daisy chrysanthemum / Montauk daisy
------------------------- Genus      Santolina
------------------------------ Species      chamaecyparissus L.  (marchii)       Lavender cotton / Cotton lavender
------------------------------ Species      rosmarinifolia L.       Green lavender cotton / Green santolina / Holy flax
------------------------------ Species      virens Mill.  (tuberculosa)       Green santolina
------------------------- Genus      Tarchonanthus
------------------------------ Species      littoralis P.P.J.Herman        Coastal camphor bush / Kuskanferbos / Isiduli selindle / Igqeba-elimhlophe / Isidulu-sehlathi
-------------------- Family      Campanulaceae, the bellflower family
------------------------- Genus      Brighamia
------------------------------ Species      insignis A.Gray  (citrina)  X        Alula / Cabbage on a stick
------------------------- Genus      Platycodon
------------------------------ Species      grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC.  (autumnalis, chinensis, glauca, mariesii, sinensis)       Korean or Chinese or Japanese or Autumn bellflower / Balloon flower / Common balloon flower
--------------- Order      Escalloniales
-------------------- Family      Escalloniaceae, the Escallonia family
------------------------- Genus      Escallonia  *
------------------------------ Species      rubra (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.  (commutata, concinna, duplicatoserrata, glandulosa, littoralis, macrantha, poeppigiana, punctata, rahmeri)       Escallonia
--------------- Order      Gentianales
-------------------- Family       Apocynaceae, the dogbane family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Adenium  *
------------------------------ Species      obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult.  (arabicum, arboreum, coetaneum, honghel, micranthum, socotranum, somalense, speciosum, tricholepis)  <"thousands of cultivars"> # highly toxic sap #       Desert rose / Sabi star / Kudu / Mock azalea / Impala lily / Rose du desert / Baobab chacal / Faux baobab / Lis des impalas / Pied d'elephant / Rosa do deserto / Baoba exotica / Djindje pete / Mdagu / Mdaguwande / Mwanja
------------------------------ Species      swazicum Stapf  (boehmianum, obesum)        Adenium
------------------------- Genus      Allamanda
------------------------------ Species      cathartica L.  (aubletii, chelsonii, grandiflora, hendersonii, latifolia, linnaei, salicifolia, schottii, wardleyana, williamsii)  # poisonous sap #       Yellow or Brownbud allamanda / Golden-trumpet / Common trumpetvine
------------------------- Genus      Alyxia
------------------------------ Species      buxifolia R.Br.  (capitellata)       Sea box
------------------------- Genus      Carissa  *  o
------------------------------ Species      carandas L.  (salicina)        Karonda / Karanda / Karamardaka / Vakkay / Kilaakkaai / Kerenda / Bengal currant / Christ's thorn / Nam phrom / Namdaeng / Caramba / Perunkila / Karja tenga / Koromcha
------------------------------ Species      macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC.  (africana, carandas, grandiflora, praetermissa)        Natal plum
------------------------------ Species      spinarum L.  (abyssinica, africana, axillaris, brownii, campenonii, candolleana, cochinchinensis, comorensis, congesta, coriacea, cornifolia, dalzellii, densiflora, diffusa, dulcis, edulis, hirsuta, horrida, inermis, lanceolata, laxiflora, macrophylla, madagascariensis, obovata, oleoides, ovata, paucinervia, pilosa, pubescens, revoluta, richardiana, scabra, sechellensis, suavissima, tomentosa, villosa, xylopicron, yunnanensis)        Conkerberry / Bush plum / Currant bush / Native or Black currant / Wild karanda
------------------------- Genus      Catharanthus (Lochnera, Pervinca, Vinca)  # extremely toxic, especially if ingested #
------------------------------ Species      roseus (L.) G.Don  (glabrum)        Madagascar or Rosy or Rose or Cape periwinkle / Vinca / Old-maid / Noyon tora / Noyontara / Sadaphuli / Tapak Dara / Boa-noite / Maria-sem-vergonha / Vinca-de-madagáscar / Vinca-de-gato / Vinca-branca / Vinca del Cabo / Vinca rosa or rosada / Putica / Nithyakalyani / Barmasi / Izmir güzeli
------------------------- Genus      Fockea
------------------------------ Species      edulis (Thunb.) K.Schum.  (cylindrica, glabra)       Hottentot bread / Edible kambroo / Bergbaroe / Bergkambroo / Kambaroo / Kambroo / Kambro / Hotnotswaatlemoen / !Koo / !Ku / !Kuu
------------------------- Genus      Holarrhena (Chonemorpha, Echites)
------------------------------ Species      pubescens Wall.  (antidysenterica, codaga, febrifuga, fischeri, glaberrima, glabra, macrocarpa, malaccensis, perrotii, pierrei, tettensis, villosa)        Bitter oleander / Easter or Jasmine tree / Indrajao / Dhulkari / Dudkhuri / Kurchi / Kutaja / Kadavo indrajav / Karva indrajau / Kutaja / Koodsaloo / Korchie / Andusurun / Kudo / Kutakappaala / Indrajav / Kutaja / Pandhra kuda / Keor / Kewar / Kherwa / Korwa / Kurwa / Pitakorwa / Indrayava / Kutaja / Sakraparyaaya / Sakraasana / Vatsaka / Kirimllikai / Kutaca-p-palai / Mlaimllikai / Girimallika / Kodisepala / Kolamukku / Kondamalle / Kutajamu
------------------------- Genus      Kopsia (Cerbera, Tabernaemontana)
------------------------------ Species      fruticosa (Roxb.) A.DC.  (vinciflora)        Shrub vinca / Pink kopsia / Kopsia merah / Pink gardenia / Hong hua rui mu
------------------------- Genus      Nerium
------------------------------ Species      oleander L.  (carneum, flavescens, floridum, grandiflorum, indicum, japonicum, kotschyi, latifolium, lauriforme, luteum, mascatense, odoratissimum, odorum, splendens, thyrsiflorum, verecundum)  # all parts toxic to humans and other mammals #       Oleander / Yoodowha / Arali / Kaner
------------------------- Genus      Pachypodium
------------------------------ Species      bispinosum (L.f.) A.DC.  (glabrum)        Pachypodium
------------------------------ Species      horombense Poiss.       Pachypodium
------------------------------ Species      lamerei Drake  (champenoisianum, ramosum, rutenbergianum)       Madagascar palm
------------------------------ Species      rosulatum Baker  (cactipes, drakei)       Elephant's foot plant
------------------------------ Species      saundersii N.E.Br.       Kudu lily / Star of Lundi / Lundi Star
------------------------------ Species      succulentum (L.f.) Sweet  (griquense, jasminiflorum, tomentosum, tuberosum)       Pachypodium
------------------------- Genus      Plumeria  *
------------------------------ Species      obtusa L.  (apiculata, bahamensis, barahonensis, beatensis, bicolor, cayensis, clusioides, confusa, cubensis, cuneifolia, dictyophylla, ekmanii, emarginata, estrellensis, inaguensis, jamaicensis, krugii, marchii, montana, nipensis, nivea, ostenfeldii, parvifolia, portoricensis, tenorei, venosa, versicolor)        Pagoda tree / White frangipani / Singapore graveyard flower
------------------------------ Species      pudica Jacq.  (caracasana, cochleata)        Bridal bouquet / Fiddle leaf or Ever blooming plumeria / White frangipani
------------------------------ Species      rubra L.  (acuminata, acutifolia, angustifolia, arborea, arborescens, aurantia, aurantiaca, bicolor, blandfordiana, carinata, conspicua, gouanii, incarnata, jamesonii, kerrii, kunthiana, lambertiana, loranthifolia, lutea, macrophylla, megaphylla, mexicana, milleri, mollis, northiana, purpurea, tenuifolia, tricolor)        Frangipani / Red or Mexican plumeria / Templetree / Pagoda tree / Kalachuchi / Kalatsutsi / Perungalli
------------------------- Genus      Tabernaemontana (Ervatamia, Nerium, Reichardia)
------------------------------ Species      divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.  (citrifolia, coronaria, discolor, flabelliformis, gratissima, indica, lurida, recurva, siamensis)        Pinwheel or Milk flower / Crape jasmine / East India rosebay / Nero's crown / Wathusudda / Nandivardhanam / Chandni / Taggar
------------------------- Genus      Trachelospermum (Rynchospermum)   *
------------------------------ Species      asiaticum (Siebold & Zucc.) Nakai  (bessonii, borneanum, brevisepalum, crocostomum, divaricatum, foetidum, gracilipes, lanyuense, liukiuense, majus, siamense)        Yellow star jasmine
------------------------------ Species      jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem.  (adnascens, bowringii, divaricatum)   # some sources mistakenly report as toxic #        Star or Confederate jasmine
------------------------- Genus      Wrightia (Echites, Nerium)  *
------------------------------ Species      coccinea (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Sims       Yun nan dao diao bi / Dudhi / Palan phul
------------------------------ Species      religiosa (Teijsm. & Binn.) Benth. ex Kurz       Sacred Buddhist or Wondrous wrightia / Wild water plum / Water jasmine / Anting putri / Princess earrings / Sui mei
-------------------- Family      Rubiaceae, the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Adina  *
------------------------------ Species      pilulifera (Lamarck) Franchet ex Drake        Adina / Shui tuan hua / Chinese buttonbush
------------------------------ Species      rubella (Teijsm. & Binn.) Benth. ex Kurz  (fauriei)        Chinese button bush
------------------------- Genus      Calycophyllum
------------------------------ Species      spruceanum (Benth.) Hook.f. ex K.Schum.       Bayabochi
------------------------- Genus      Canthium (Plectronia)
------------------------------ Species      horridum Blume  [horrida]  (hebecladum, parviflorum, pauciflorum, scandens, zizyphinum)        Landepan / Zhu du mu
------------------------- Genus      Coffea
------------------------------ Species      arabica L.  (bourbonica, corymbulosa, laurifolia, moka, sundana, vulgaris)        Coffee plant
------------------------- Genus      Coprosma
------------------------------ Species      repens A.Rich.  (baueriana, perpusilla, retusa, stockii)        Taupata / Mirror plant or bush / Creeping mirrorplant / Looking glass plant
------------------------------ Species      robusta Raoul  (coffaeoides)        Karamu
------------------------- Genus      Damnacanthus
------------------------------ Species      indicus C.F.Gaertn.  (esquirolii, formosanus, lancifolius, major) 18        Damnacanthus / Hu ci / Aridoshi
------------------------- Genus      Gardenia  *
------------------------------ Species      cornuta Hemsl.       Natal or Thorned gardenia
------------------------------ Species      jasminoides J.Ellis  18 (angustifolia, augusta, florida, grandiflora, longisepala, maruba, pictorum, radicans, schlechteri)        Common gardenia / Cape jasmine / Cape jessamine / Zhi zi
------------------------------ Species      thunbergia Thunb.   (appendiculata, crassicaulis, macrocarpa, medicinalis, speciosa, verticillata)        Thunberg's or Starry gardenia
------------------------------ Species      volkensii K.Schum. (somalensis, stupinocarpa, spathulifolia)        Gardenia tree / Wild or Transvaal or Bushveld gardenia / Transvaalkatjiepiering / Bosveldkatjiepiering / Kannetjieboom / Stompdoring / Morala / Ntsalala / umGongwane
------------------------- Genus      Guettarda (Matthiola)
------------------------------ Species      elliptica Sw.  (colubrinoides, dichotoma, fuertesii, lindeniana, reticulata, tetrandra)        Hammock or Oval-leaf or Smooth or Common or Everglades velvetseed
------------------------- Genus      Hamelia (Duhamelia)
------------------------------ Species      patens Jacq.   (brachystemon, brittoniana, coccinea, corymbosa, erecta, intermedia, lanuginosa, latifolia, nodosa, pedicellata, sphaerocarpa, suaveolens, tubiflora, verticillata, viridifolia)       Firebush / Hummingbird Bush / Scarlet Bush / Redhead
------------------------- Genus      Ixora  (Pavetta)  *
------------------------------ Species      chinensis Lam.  (blanda, colei, crocata, dixiana, dubia, flammea, incarnata, kroneana, pallida, rosea, speciosa, stricta)        Chinese ixora / Santan
------------------------------ Species      coccinea L.  (arborea, bandhuca, eekhautii, fraseri, grandiflora, incarnata, lutea, montana, morsei, obovata, propinqua, purpurea, radiata, shawii, thomeana)        Jungle geranium or flame / Flame of the woods / Scarlet jungleflame
------------------------------ Species      javanica (Blume) DC.  (amara, amoena, cyathosperma, mutabilis, stricta)        Javanese ixora / Jungle flame or geranium
------------------------- Genus      Mitragyna (Nauclea)
------------------------------ Species      parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth.          Dharakadam / Gulikadam / Kaim / Kalam / Guri / Kadambamaram / Sanna or Nira or Water kadamba / Kongu / Nayekadambe / Rose or Patta or Boodha or Neer or Chinna kadambu / Viimp / Kadamamaram / Sirakadambu / Niirkkatamp / Puuccakkatamp / Sirikadamba / Poochakadambu / Kathamamaram / Neerkadambu / Roos katamp / Kadamba / Veembu / Vimba / Kadambu / Kalam / Nichulam / Kadam / Vitanah / Nirkkatampu / Niculam / Nir-kadambai / Neerkadambai ilukki / Jalatumburu / Nirkadambu / Ajaghnamu / Rsya / Tadhidruma / Ambusaramu
------------------------- Genus      Morinda  *  o
------------------------------ Species      citrifolia L.  (angustifolia, aspera, asperula, bracteata, chachuca, coreia, elliptica, ligulata, littoralis, macrophylla, mudia, multiflora, nodosa, quadrangularis, stenophylla, teysmanniana, tinctoria, tomentosa, zollingeriana)        Great morinda / Indian or Beach mulberry / Noni / Cheese fruit
------------------------- Genus      Pentas (Mussaenda)  *
------------------------------ Species      lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers  (ainsworthii, klotzschii, luteola, schweinfurthii)        Dwarf yellow mussaenda / White wing / Pentas / Egyptian starcluster / Paper chase tree
------------------------- Genus      Serissa  (Dysoda, Leptodermis)  *
------------------------------ Species      japonica (Thunb.) Thunb.  18 (buxifolia, crassiramea, democritea, foetida, kawakamii, myrtifolia, serissoides)        Serissa / Snow rose / Tree of a thousand stars / Japanese boxthorn / Liu yue xue / Seribu bintang
--------------- Order      Lamiales
-------------------- Family      Acanthaceae, the acanthus family
------------------------- Genus      Graptophyllum
------------------------------ Species      excelsum (F.Muell.) Druce        Fuchsia
------------------------- Genus      Thunbergia
------------------------------ Species      excelsum Hook.f.        Blue sky shrub
-------------------- Family      Bignoniaceae, the bignonia family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Bignonia  *
------------------------------ Species      capreolata L.       Crossvine / Trumpet vine
------------------------- Genus      Campsis  *
------------------------------ Species      grandiflora (Thunb.) K.Schum.  (adrepens, chinensis)       Chinese trumpet vine or creeper
------------------------------ Species      radicans Seem.       Trumpet vine or creeper / Cow itch or Hummingbird vine
------------------------- Genus      Catalpa  *
------------------------------ Species      bignonioides Walter       Southern catalpa / Cigar tree / Indian bean tree
------------------------- Genus      Chilopsis
------------------------------ Species      linearis (Cav.) Sweet       Desert willow
------------------------- Genus      Crescentia
------------------------------ Species      cujete L. (acuminata, angustifolia, arborea, cuneifolia, fasciculata, latifolia, plectantha, pumila, spathulata)        Calabash or Rum tree / Ayale / Calabacero/ Cuité / Totumo / Tutumo / Taparo / Mate / Huinga / Pate / Cuyabra / Jícaro / Cujete / Miracle fruit / Kalbas / Higuera
------------------------- Genus      Jacaranda  *
------------------------------ Species      mimosifolia D.Don  (acutifolia)        Jacaranda / Blue jacaranda / Black poui / the fern tree
------------------------- Genus      Millingtonia (Bignonia)
------------------------------ Species      hortensis L.f. (dubiosa)        Tree jasmine / Indian cork tree / Latak chandani / Akash mallige / Akash or Mara Malli / Kavuki / Pip / Mini chameli / Akash mallee
------------------------- Genus      Parmentiera
------------------------------ Species      cereifera Seem.        Candle tree
------------------------- Genus      Podranea  (Bignonia)  *
------------------------------ Species      brycei (N.E.Br.) Sprague       Queen-of-Sheba vine / St. John's or Zimbabwe creeper
------------------------------ Species      ricasoliana (Tanfani) Sprague  (rosada)        Pink trumpet vine / Port St. Johns or Zimbabwe creeper / Queen of Sheba
------------------------- Genus      Tabebuia  (Tecoma)  *
------------------------------ Species      aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook.f. ex S.Moore  (argentea, caraiba, suberosa)       Caribbean trumpet tree
------------------------------ Species      chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC.) Standl.  (flavescens, pedicellata)       Golden trumpet tree
------------------------------ Species      heterophylla (DC.) Britton  (arenicola, beyeri, brigandina, camagueyensis, capotei, curtissii, dictyophylla, geronensis, gonavensis, leptopoda, lindahlii, lucida, pallida, pentaphylla, riparia, truphylla)       Pink trumpet tree / Pink tab / Roble blanco / White-cedar
------------------------------ Species      rosea (Bertol.) Bertero ex A.DC.  (mexicana, pentaphylla, (Bertol.) Bertero ex A.DC.)       Pink trumpet tree / Pink poui / Maquilishuat / Roble de Sabana
------------------------- Genus      Tecoma  (Bignonia, Stenolobium, Tecomaria)  *
------------------------------ Species      capensis (Thunb.) Lindl. (petersii)        Cape honeysuckle
------------------------------ Species      stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (incisa, molle, tronadora, velutina)        Yellow bells or elder
-------------------- Family      Boraginaceae, the borage or forget-me-not family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Carmona  (Ehretia)   *
------------------------------ Species      retusa (Vahl) Masam.  (buxifolia, microphylla)        Fukien or Hokian tea / Philippine tea tree / Scorpionbush / Ji ji shu / Karmona / Tsaang-gubat / Sido gurih
------------------------- Genus      Cordia  *
------------------------------ Species      boissieri A.DC.       Mexican olive / Texas wild olive / White geiger / Anacahuita
------------------------------ Species      parvifolia A.DC.       Little-leaf cordia / Small-leaf geigertree
------------------------- Genus      Ehretia  *
------------------------------ Species      acuminata R.Br.  (argyi, kantonensis, onava, ovalifolia, pilosula, polyantha, pyrifolia, serrata, taiwaniana, thyrsiflora, virgata)        Brown-cedar / Koda / Kodowood / Silky-ash / Wild peach / Chisha-no-ki / Hou ke shu
------------------------------ Species      anacua (Terán & Berland.) I.M.Johnst.  (ciliata, elliptica, exasperata, lancifolia, scabra)        Anacua / Sugarberry anacua / Anaqua / Knockaway / Sandpaper tree
------------------------------ Species      dicksonii Hance  (macrophylla)        Cu kang shu
-------------------- Family      Lamiaceae, the mint family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Callicarpa  *  o
------------------------------ Species      bodinieri H.Lév.  (feddei, giraldiana, glandulosa, seguinii, tonkinensis, tsiangii)        Bodinier's beautyberry
------------------------------ Species      dichotoma (Lour.) K.Koch  (gracilis, japonica, purpurea)        Purple beautyberry / Early amethyst
------------------------------ Species      japonica Thunb.  (caudatifolia, mimurazakii, murasakii, taquetii)       Japanese beautyberry or callicarpa
------------------------- Genus      Caryopteris
------------------------------ Species      incana (Thunb. ex Houtt.) Miq.  (mastacanthus, ovata, sinensis)       Bluebeard bush
------------------------- Genus      Clerodendrum [Clerodendron]
------------------------------ Species      phlomidis L.f.  (multiflorum)        Agnimantha / Jaya / Sriparni / Ganikarika / Jayanthi / Tarkari / Nadeyi / Vai jayanthi / Urni / Arni
------------------------------ Species      thomsoniae Balf.f.  (balfourii)       Bleeding heart
------------------------- Genus      Clinopodium  (Micromeria, Satureja)
------------------------------ Species      vimineum (L.) Kuntze       Serpentine savory / Costa Rican mint
------------------------- Genus      Gmelina
------------------------------ Species      arborea Roxb.   (rheedei, sinuata)       Beechwood / Gmelina / Goomar or White teak / Kashmir tree / Malay beechwood / Vemane / Gamhar / Gomari or Gamari / Gambare or Gambar or Gumbar or Gambari / Shewan or Sivan or Sewan or Siwan / Khamara or Khamaari or Khumbhari / Kooli or Shivane mara / Kumbuda / Kumulu or Kumilu / Shivani / Kumbil or Kumbulu or Kumiska / Pokki / Bhodropornni / Kumar / Sindhuparni / Sindhuveshanam / Stulatvach / Demata / Kumla / Kumalamaram / Kumizh / Venthekku / Ummithekku / Gumartek / Gummadi / Summadi / Yemane / Jati putih
------------------------------ Species      elliptica Sm.  (asiatica, villosa)        Badhara bush / A kulb ne par reth / Kalngebard ra belau / Mulawin aso / Wareng
------------------------------ Species      philippensis Cham.  (finlaysoniana, hystrix)        Hedgehog / Parrot's beak / Ching-chai / Yellow lobster claw / Tu hú phi luat tân / Tu hú lá bac tím
------------------------- Genus      Holmskioldia  *
------------------------------ Species      sanguinea Retz.  (rubra, scandens)        Chinese hat plant
------------------------- Genus      Hyssopus
------------------------------ Species      officinalis L.&mnsp; (alopecuroides, altissimus, angustifolius, beugesiacus, caucasicus, decumbens, fischeri, hiursutus, judaeorum, myrtifolius, orientalis, passionis, polycladus, pubescens, recticaulis, ruber, schleicheri, torresii, vulgaris)        Hyssop
------------------------- Genus      Lavandula  *
------------------------------ Species      dentata L.  (pinnata, santolinifolia)        French lavender / Alhucema inglesa or rizada / Cantueso / Cantueso dentado or rizado / Espliego dentado / Garlanda
------------------------------ Species      stoechas L.  (approximata, corsica, debeauxii, fascicularis, incana, olbiensis, stoechadensis)        French or Spanish or Topped lavender
------------------------- Genus      Leonotis  (Leonurus)
------------------------------ Species      leonurus (L.) R.Br.       Lion's tail
------------------------- Genus      Ocimum
------------------------------ Species      basilicum L.  (album, anisatum, barrelieri, bullatum, caryophyllatum, chevalieri, ciliare, ciliatum, citrodorum, cochleatum, dentatum, hispidum, integerrimum, lanceolatum, laxum, majus, medium, minus, nigrum, odorum, scabrum, simile, thyrsiflorum, urticifolium)        Basil / Basilic common / Basilico / Bush or Sweet or Wild basil
------------------------- Genus      Origanum  (Majorana)
------------------------------ Species      majorana L.  (confertum, dubium, majoranoides, odorum, salvifolium)        Sweet or Knotted marjoram
------------------------------ Species      vulgare L.  (albiflorum, americanum, anglicum, barcense, capitatum, creticum, decipiens, dilatatum, elegans, floridum, heracleoticum, hirtum, latifolium, laxiflorum, loureiroi, majus, megastachyum, micranthum, nutans, officinale, orientale, puberulum, purpurescens, serpylliforme, stoloniferum, thymiflorum, venosum, watsonii)        Wild marjoram / Oregano
------------------------- Genus      Premna (Gumira)
------------------------------ Species      microphylla Turcz.  (formosana, japonica, luxurians)        Musk or Japanese musk maple / Japanese neem tree / Premna / Argao / Wahong
------------------------------ Species      nauseosa Blanco   (leucostoma)        Alagau-gubat / Wahong laut
------------------------------ Species      odorata Blanco  (curranii, flavida, goeringii, oblongata, pubescens, tomentosa, vestita)        Fragrant premna / Abgao / Abgau / Alagau / Alagaw / Anobran / Argau / Atiñgi / Duragau / Guachal / Lagau / Lassi / Pumuhat tangli / Saliargao / Tibangñgen
------------------------------ Species      serratifolia L.  (abbreviata, angustior, attenuata, benthamiana, corymbosa, gaudichaudii, glabra, glycycocca, guillauminii, hircina, integrifolia, laevigata, littoralis, media, obtusifolia, opulifolia, ovata, sambucina, spinosa, subcordata, tahitensis, truncata)        Premna / Angnimantha / Arani / Alagaw / Adau / Aldas / Baloh / Buas-buas / Buas laut / Kayu buas / Laban putih / Lambuas / Singkel / Headache tree / Wahong
------------------------- Genus      Prostanthera
------------------------------ Species      rotundifolia R.Br.  (cotinifolia, retusa)        Roundleaf or Australian mint bush
------------------------- Genus      Rosmarinus  *
------------------------------ Species      officinalis L.  (angustifolius, communis, flexuosus, latifolius, laxiflorus, palaui, prostratus, rigidus, serotinus, tenuifolius)        Rosemary
------------------------- Genus      Salvia
------------------------------ Species      elegans Vahl  (camertonii, incarnata, longiflora, microcalyx, microculis, punicea, rutilans)       Pineapple or Tangerine sage
------------------------------ Species      officinalis L.  (chromatica, clusii, cretica, crispa, digyna, grandiflora, hispanica, minor, papillosa, tricolor)        Garden or Common or Kitchen sage
------------------------- Genus      Satureja
------------------------------ Species      hortensis L.  (altaica, brachiata, filicaulis, laxiflora, litwinowii, officinarum, pachyphylla, viminea, zuvandica)        Summer savory
------------------------------ Species      montana L.  (brevis, ciliata, flexuosa, hyssopifolia, mucronifolia, ovalifolia, petraea, pollinonis, provincialis, pyrenaica, rigidula, trifida)        Winter savory
------------------------- Genus      Teucrium  (Monochilon, Scorodonia)
------------------------------ Species      chamaedrys L.  (multiflorum, officinale, pseudochamaedrys, veronicifolium)        Wall germander
------------------------------ Species      lucidum L.        Germander
------------------------------ Species      scorodonia L.   (salviifolium)        Wood-sage / Woodland germander
------------------------- Genus      Thymus
------------------------------ Species      citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb.       Lemon or Citrus thyme
------------------------------ Species      herba-barona Loisel.   (affinis, attenuatus)        Caraway thyme
------------------------------ Species      serpyllum L.  (acicularis, adscendens, affinis, albidus, angulosus, angustifolius, angustus, apricus, aureus, azoricus, barbatus, beneschianus, borbasii, caespitosus, calcicolus, campestris, carstiensis, caucasicus, chamaedrys, ciliatus, citratus, communis, concolor, dalmaticus, decumbens, deflexus, elatus, ellipticus, elongatus, erioclados, exserens, flogellicaulis, gizellae, glabrescens, gratissimus, hackelianus, hausmannii, hornungianus, incanus, includens, inodorus, interruptus, kollmunzerianus, kratzmannianus, laevigatus, linearifolius, longistylus, lucidus, macrophyllus, majoranifolius, micranthus, minutus, muscosus, oblongifolius, ovatus, procerus, procumbens, pseudoserpyllum, pumilis, pusillus, pusio, pycnotrichus, radoi, raripilus, reflexus, reichelianus, repens, rigidulus, rigidus, rotundifolius, sanioi, serbicus, serratus, simplex, spathulatus, subcitratus, subhirsutus, variabilis, villosus, wierzbickianus, wondracekianus)        Breckland or Wild or Creeping thyme
------------------------------ Species      vulgaris L.  (baeticus, chinensis, collinus, ilerdensis, sublaxus, webbianus, zygis)        Common or Garden thyme
------------------------- Genus      Vitex  *
------------------------------ Species      agnus-castus L.  (agnus, hybrida, integra, latifolia, lupinifolia, pseudonegundo, robusta, verticillata)        Vitex / Chaste tree / Chasteberry / Abraham's balm / Monk's pepper
------------------------------ Species      lucens Kirk  (glabrata, littoralis)        New Zealand chaste tree / Puriri
------------------------------ Species      mombassae Vatke  (flavescens, goetzei, mechowii, mufutu)        Smelly-berry fingerleaf / Pooraberry / Kafutubututa / Kalume-kamuchinka / Muninka / Mfutu / Fika / Mkika / Mufifya-wangoono
------------------------------ Species      negundo L.  (arborea, chinensis, elmeri, gracilis, incisa, laciniata, leucoxylon, simplicifolia, sinuata, spicata, trifolia)        Chinese or Five-leaved chaste tree / Lagundi
------------------------------ Species      parviflora A.Juss.  (altissima, cofassus, geniculata, glaberrima, glandulosa, latifolia, leucoxylon, littoralis, timoriensis)        Molave / Small-leaved vitex / Smallflower chastetree / Lagundi / Molauin / Tugas bato
------------------------------ Species      quinata (Lour.) F.N.Williams  (altmannii, babula, celebica, heterophylla, loureiroi, padangensis, secundiflora, sumatrana, undulata)        Vitex / Shan mu jing
------------------------------ Species      trifolia L.  (benthamiana, bicolor, indica, integerrima, iriomotensis, langundi, negundo, neocaledonica, paniculata, petiolaris, rotundifolia, triphylla, variifolia)        Simpleleaf chaste tree
------------------------- Genus      Volkameria (Clerodendrum)
------------------------------ Species      aculeata L.  (aculeatum, angustifolia)        Haggarbush / Escambron blanco
------------------------------ Species      inermis L.  (buxifolia, commersonii, inerme, neriifolia)        Ku lang shu / Ibota-kusagi
-------------------- Family      Oleaceae, the olive family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Chionanthus  *
------------------------------ Species      retusus Lindley & Paxton       Chinese fringe tree / Liu su shu
------------------------- Genus      Forestiera  (Adelia, Bigelovia, Borya)
------------------------------ Species      neomexicana A.Gray       New Mexico privet / Wild or Desert olive
------------------------------ Species      pubescens Nutt. (ligustrina)        Stretchberry / Desert olive / Tanglewood / Devil's elbow / Spring goldenglow or herald / Texas elbow-bush or forsythia / Chaparral / Downy forestiera
------------------------------ Species      segregata (Jacq.) Krug & Urb.  (cassinoides, globularis, jacquiniana, porulosa)       Florida or Southern privet / Florida swampprivet
------------------------- Genus      Forsythia  *
------------------------------ Species      suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl       Weeping forsythia / Lianqiao
------------------------------ Species      viridissima Lindl.       Greenstem forsythia
------------------------- Genus      Fraxinus  #
------------------------------ Species      americana L.       White or American ash
------------------------------ Species      anomala Torr. ex S.Wats.       Single-leaf ash
------------------------------ Species      chinensis (Hance.)Hemsl.       Chinese ash / Bai la shu / Hua qu liu
------------------------------ Species      excelsior L.       European or Common ash
------------------------------ Species      ornus L.       Manna or Flowering ash / South European flowering ash
------------------------------ Species      sieboldiana Blume.  (mariesii)        Siebold ash / Japanese or Chinese flowering ash / Lu shan qin
------------------------------ Species      velutina Torr.       Velvet or Arizona or Modesto ash
------------------------- Genus      Jasminum  *
------------------------------ Species      dichotomum Vahl (brevipes, bukobense, gardeniodorum, gossweileri, guineense, mathildae, noctiflorum, ternifolium, ternum)       Rose bud or Everblooming or Gold Coast jasmine
------------------------------ Species      multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andrews       Winter or Indian or Downy or Star jasmine / Melati / Mao mo li / Sternblütiger jasmin / Borneojasmin / Magha mallika
------------------------------ Species      multipartitum Hochst.       Starry wild jasmine / Sterretjies-jasmyn / Imfohlafohlane
------------------------------ Species      nudiflorum Lindl.  4        Winter or Winter-flowered or Hardy jasmine / Ying chun hua
------------------------------ Species      odoratissimum L.  (floridum, fruticans)       Showy or Florida or Yellow or Fruity jasmine
------------------------------ Species      officinale L.       Common or Poet's or Just jasmine
------------------------------ Species      parkeri Dunn       Dwarf jasmine
------------------------------ Species      sambac (L.) Aiton  (bicorollatum, blancoi, heyneanum, odoratum, pubescens, quadrifolium, quinqueflorum, sanjurium, undulatum)       Arabian or Tuscan or Sambuc or Chinese or Climbing jasmine / Sampaguita / Sampagitaing-gubat / Melur / Yasmeen / Motiya / Ful / Mari / Malila / Melati Putih / Pikake / Mo Li Hua / Hoa Nhài / Kampupot
------------------------- Genus      Ligustrum o
------------------------------ Species      japonicum Thunb.       Japanese or Wax-leaf privet
------------------------------ Species      lucidum W.T.Aiton       Chinese or Glossy or Broad-leaf or Tree privet
------------------------------ Species      obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc.  (ibota)        Border privet
------------------------------ Species      ovalifolium Hassk.       California or Oval-leaved privet
------------------------------ Species      quihoui Carrière  (argyi, brachystachyum, vulgare)        Waxy leaf privet
------------------------------ Species      sinense Lour.  (villosum)        Chinese privet / Chou
------------------------------ Species      vulgare L.       European or Common or Wild privet
------------------------- Genus      Olea  *  o
------------------------------ Species      capensis L. (laurifolia)       Ysterhout / Black ironwood / East African or Elgon olive / Ironwood / Ironwood olive / Loliondo / Mushargi
------------------------------ Species      europaea L.  (africana, cuspidata)       Olive tree / Oliva
------------------------------ Species      exasperata Jacq.       Dune olive / Glashoutolien / Slanghout / Vlashoutolien
------------------------------ Species      oleaster Hoffmanns. & Link       Wild-olive
------------------------------ Species      sylvestris Mill.       Forest olive
------------------------------ Species      woodiana Knobl.       Forest olive / Black ironwood / Bosolienhout
------------------------- Genus      Osmanthus (Olea)
------------------------------ Species      fragrans Lour.  (acuminatus, asiaticus, aurantiacus, intermedius, latifolius, longibracteatus, macrocarpus)       Sweet osmanthus / Fragrant tea or Sweet olive / Kin-mokusei / Guihua / Xi
------------------------------ Species      heterophyllus (G.Don) P.S.Green  (aquifolium, bibracteatus, ilicifolius, integrifolius, myrtifolius, rotundifolius, tricolor)        Holly osmanthus or olive / False holly / Zhong shu / Hiiragi
------------------------- Genus      Phillyrea  *  o
------------------------------ Species      latifolia L.       Phillyrea
------------------------- Genus      Syringa  *
------------------------------ Species      pubescens Turcz.  (meyeri, microphylla, palibiniana, villosa, wulingensis)        Korean or Meyer or Littleleaf lilac / Guan dong qiao ling hua / Sammetssyren
------------------------------ Species      vulgaris L.       Common or French lilac
-------------------- Family      Paulowniaceae, the paulownia family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Paulownia
------------------------------ Species      tomentosa Steud.  (grandifolia, imperialis, lilacina, recurva)  W        Paulownia / Princess tree
-------------------- Family      Plantaginaceae, the plantain family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Antirrhinum  *
------------------------------ Species      majus L.  (grandiflorum, hispanorum, latifolium, murale, vulgare)        Snapdragon
-------------------- Family      Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Buddleja [Buddleia]  (Nicodemia)
------------------------------ Species      alternifolia Maxim.       Fountain or Alternate-Leaf or Weeping butterfly bush
------------------------------ Species      davidii Franch.  (delavayi, heliophila, shimidzuana, striata, variabilis) W       Summer lilac / Orange eye butterfly-bush
------------------------------ Species      indica Lam.  (diversifolia, loniceroides, nepalensis)        Butterfly bush
------------------------------ Species      mendozensis Gillet ex Benth.  (kurtzii, lucae, tenuifolia)        Salvialora / Salvilora / Salvia de la hora / Salvia blanca
------------------------------ Species      saligna Willd.  (salicifolia)        Squarestem butterflybush / False or Bastard olive
------------------------- Genus      Eremophila
------------------------------ Species      maculata P.J.Müll.       Spotted emu bush / Swamp or Native fuchsia
------------------------- Genus      Leucophyllum  *
------------------------------ Species      frutescens (Berland.) I.M. Johnst.  (texanum)        Texas sage or ranger or or silverleaf or rain sage / Cenizo / Ash-bush / Wild lilac / Purple sage / Senisa / Cenicilla / Palo cenizo / Hierba del cenizo
------------------------- Genus      Myoporum
------------------------------ Species      parvifolium R.Br.       Creeping boobialla
-------------------- Family      Stilbaceae, the candlestick family
------------------------- Genus      Halleria
------------------------------ Species      lucida L. (abyssinica)        Tree fuchsia / umBinza / Notsung / African honeysuckle
-------------------- Family      Verbenaceae, the verbena or vervain family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Aloysia (Lippia, Verbena)
------------------------------ Species      citrodora Palau  (sleumeri, triphylla)        Lemon verbena / Lemon beebrush
------------------------------ Species      gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc.  (chacoensis, floribunda, ligustrina, lycioides, meyeri, schulziana, sellowii, uruguayensis)        Whitebrush / Bee-brush / White-brush / Common bee-brush / Beebrush / Privet lippia
------------------------- Genus      Duranta [Durante]  *
------------------------------ Species      erecta L.  (angustifolia, dentata, ellisiae, inermis, integrifolia, latifolia, macrodonta, microphylla, plumieri, racemosa, repens, spinosa, turbinata, xalapensis)       Golden dewdrop / Pigeonberry / Skyflower / Penitian
------------------------- Genus      Lantana  *
------------------------------ Species      camara L.  (annua, antillana, arida, asperata, coccinea, crocea, glandulosissima, mexicana, mixta, moritziana, sanguinea, spinosa, suaveolens, undulata, urticifolia, viburnoides)       Lantana / Shrub verbena / Spanish Flag or West Indian lantana / Kantutay
------------------------------ Species      depressa Small       Trailing or Small or Depressed or Pineland lantana
------------------------------ Species      montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq.  (decumbens, delicatissima, selloi, sellowiana)        Trailing or Weeping or Creeping or Small or Purple lantana / Trailing shrubverbena
------------------------- Genus      Nashia
------------------------------ Species      inaguensis Millsp.       Moujean tea / Bahama berry / Pineapple verbena
------------------------- Genus      Petrea
------------------------------ Species      volubilis L. (amazonica, arborea, arborescens, aspera, atrocoerulea, colombiana, erecta, fragrantissima, kohautiana, mexicana, nitidula, ovata, racemosa, retusa, riparia, rivularis, serrata, stapeliae, subserrata, swallenii, vincentina)        Purple or Queen's wreath / Sandpaper or Bluebird vine
--------------- Order      Solanales
-------------------- Family      Solanaceae, the nightshade or potato family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Brunfelsia  (Franciscea)  *
------------------------------ Species      americana L.  (abbottii, fallax, inodora, latifolia, terminalis, violacea)       Lady of the night
------------------------------ Species      pauciflora (Cham. & Schltdl.) Benth.  (augusta, calycina, eximia, lindeniana)       Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
------------------------------ Species      uniflora (Pohl) D.Don  (hopeana, mutabilis)       Manaca
------------------------- Genus      Capsicum  (Brachistus, Fregirardia, Witheringia)   o
------------------------------ Species      annuum L.  (abyssinicum, angulosum, axi, baccatum, bauhinii, caerulescens, cerasiforme, ceratocarpum, cereolum, comarim, conicum, conoide, conoides, conoideum, cordiforme, crispum, cydoniforme, dulce, fasciculatum, fastigiatum, frutescens, globiferum, globosum, grossum, indicum, longum, milleri, minimum, odoratum, odoriferum, oliviforme, ovatum, petenense, pomiferum, purpureum, pyramidale, quitense, silvestre, sphaerium, tetragonum, tomatiforme, torulosum, tournefortii, ustulatum, violaceum)       Bell or Sweet or Chilli [Chile] or Paprika peppers / Bonbchi
------------------------------ Species      eximium Hunz.       South American wild hot pepper
------------------------------ Species      flexuosum Sendtn.        Wild capsicum
------------------------------ Species      lanceolatum (Greenm.) C.V.Morton & Standl.       Wild chilli pepper
------------------------------ Species      rhomboideum (Dunal) Kuntze  (ciliatum, diversifolium, dumetorum, haughtii, mendax, molle, pringlei, vargasii)        Central American wild chilli pepper
------------------------------ Species      schottianum Sendtn.  (flexuosum)        Wild capsicum
------------------------- Genus      Lycium
------------------------------ Species      barbarum L.  (halimifolium, lanceolatum, turbinatum, vulgare)        Goji / Wolfberry / Matrimony vine / Ningxia gouqi
------------------------------ Species      chinense Mill.  (megistocarpum, ovatum, rhombifolium, sinense, trewianum)  18        Chinese boxthorn or matrimony-vine or teaplant or wolfberry / Wolfberry / Goji berry / Gouqi
------------------------- Genus      Solanum  *
------------------------------ Species      tuberosum L.  # stems, leaves and green tubers are toxic #   (andigenum, aquinas, chiloense, chilotanum, cultum, diemii, fonckii, kesselbrenneri, leptostigma, molinae, oceanicum, ochoanum, sanmartiniense, subandigena, tascalense,zykinii)        Potato

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Index by Family
Anthophyta
Cycadophyta
Pinophyta
Pteridophyta
Notes
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae I
Magnoliophyta - Asteridae
Magnoliophyta - Caryophyllidae
Magnoliophyta - Dilleniidae
Magnoliophyta - Hamamelididae
Magnoliophyta - Magnoliidae
Magnoliophyta - Ranunculidae
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae II


To show patterns of "ease" with known/experienced plants, to find suggested "ease" with unknown/new plants,
to uncover previously unsuspected patterns.
Of course, location and microclimate will ultimately determine when members of the same genus can be grown near each other.


This listing includes more specimens than are delineated in the strict Japanese sense of the word "bonsai."
Enthusiasts around the world are incorporating more and often uniquely local types of plants in their magical miniature landscape compositions,
and thus these pages are compiled with this larger reference in mind.

We are using here the APG II System, with some blending of a modified Cronquist System.
We acknowledge that for some of these plants there could be disagreement regarding ranks above the family level.

(Non-italicized genus or species names) in parenthesis are synonyms of the preceding italicized official genus or species.
Small print non-italicized names after the official species name indicate the author(s) of the original genus placement;
if the genus was changed, we show (the original author(s) in parentheses) followed by the current author, per standard citation practices.
Where a synonym of one plant is also the same as another actual listed species for that genus,
the first plant was listed in some places as a variety of the synoynm rather than as its own species as presented here.
Due to space considerations, we are not including the author(s) for the synonyms.
[Non-italicized genus names] in brackets are alternative but incorrect spellings of the preceding italicized official genus.
Most of the botanical names herein follow The Plant List.


We have started to indicate after the genus name which plants as bonsai are especially favored for their flowers (*),
which are favored for their fruits (o), and which are favored for their colored leaves (#), particularly in autumn.
Please keep in mind that the colors of these symbols are arbitrary and do not necessarily reflect the actual color of the flowers and/or fruits so indicated.
Not all members of the genus may produce these favors.

X after a name indicates rare and/or endangered species.

P after a name indicates pioneer plants, the first to colonize a disturbed or damaged community, fast growers with lots of long-viable seeds, but not particularly long-lived as mature plants.

W after a name indicates weedy or invasive species in some locations, so be careful with your discarded material or parts thereof.

The twenty-three most popular species nowadays are indicated in bolded green.

The original "Four Gentlemen," "Seven Virtuous Ones," and "Eighteen Scholars" are so indicated by either 4, 7, or 18 after the species name.

The climate zone where they are growing will affect whether a few of these plants are perennials or are completely deciduous.



Anyone who knows of additional species used as bonsai or updates/corrections to this listing
is asked to please contact  rjb@magiminiland.org.  Thank-you.



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