ALL  THE  PRIMARY  PLANTS  USED  AS  BONSAI
AND  IN  THE  RELATED  ARTS  --
A  TAXONOMIC  ANALYSIS  OF  THE  PINOPHYTA


compiled by Robert J. Baran


This Page Last Updated: April 23, 2017



(General notes at page bottom)

 
Index by Family
Anthophyta
Cycadophyta
Pinophyta
Pteridophyta
Notes
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae I
Magnoliophyta - Asteridae
Magnoliophyta - Caryophyllidae
Magnoliophyta - Dilleniidae
Magnoliophyta - Hamamelididae
Magnoliophyta - Magnoliidae
Magnoliophyta - Ranunculidae
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae II


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Division      Pinophyta    :    Naked-seeded plants that are mostly needle-leaved or scale-leaved, chiefly evergreen, and cone-bearing
----- Class      Pinopsida
--------------- Order      Pinales
-------------------- Family      Araucariaceae, the araucaria family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Agathis
------------------------------ Species      australis (D.Don) Loudon        Kauri
------------------------- Genus      Araucaria (Columbea)
------------------------------ Species      angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze  (brasiliana, dioica, elegans, gracilis, ridolfiana, saviana) <"at least 3 cultivars">        Paraná or Brazilian pine / Candelabra tree / Pinheiro-do-paraná / Araucária / Pinheiro brasileiro
------------------------------ Species      araucana (Molina) K. Koch  <"at least 13 cultivars">        Monkey puzzle or Monkey tail tree / Chilean pine / Pehuén
------------------------------ Species      bidwillii Hook.        Bunya pine / False monkey puzzle tree
------------------------------ Species      cunninghamii Aiton ex D.Don  (beccarii, glauca)  <"at least 4 cultivars">        Hoop or Colonial or Queensland pine
------------------------------ Species      heterophylla (Salisb.) Franco  (excelsa) <"at least 8 cultivars">        Norfolk Island pine
------------------------- Genus      Wollemia
------------------------------ Species      nobilis W.G.Jones, K.D.Hill & J.M.Allen  X        Wollemi Pine
-------------------- Family      Cephalotaxaceae, the plum yew family
------------------------- Genus      Cephalotaxus
------------------------------ Species      harringtonia K. Koch  (drupacea) <"at least 13 cultivars">        Japanese plum yew / Cow's-tail pine
------------------------- Genus      Torreya
------------------------------ Species      nucifera (L.) Siebold & Zucc.  <"at least 2 cultivars">        Japanese nutmeg-yew
-------------------- Family      Cupressaceae, the cypress family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Athrotaxis (Cunninghamia)
------------------------------ Species      cupressoides D.Don (imbricata)        Tasmanian cedar / Pencil pine
------------------------------ Species      selaginoides D.Don (alpina, gunneana, imbricata)        King Billy or King William pine
------------------------- Genus      Callitris (Frenela)
------------------------------ Species      columellaris F.Muell. (arenosa, glauca, glaucophylla, hugelii, intermedia, intratropica, robusta)        White or Coast cypress-pine / Bribie Island or Murray River pine / Western sand or Coastal cypress
------------------------------ Species      rhomboidea R.Br. ex Rich. & A.Rich. (articulata, australis, cupressiformis, fothergillii, tasmanica, ventenatii)        Oyster Bay or Port Jackson pine
------------------------- Genus      Calocedrus (Libocedrus)
------------------------------ Species      decurrens (Torr.) Florin        California incense cedar
------------------------- Genus      Chamaecyparis (Cupressus, Retinispora, [Retinospora])
------------------------------ Species      lawsoniana (A.Murray bis) Parl. (allumii, boursieri) <"at least 460 cultivars">        Lawson cypress / Port Orford cedar
------------------------------ Species      obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. (acuta, andelyensis, breviramea, keteleri, lycopodioides, pendula, tsatsumi) <"at least 247 cultivars">        Japanese or Hinoki cypress / Hinoki
------------------------------ Species      pisifera (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. (filifera, leptoclada, plumosa, squarrosa) <"at least 117 cultivars">        Sawara or Japanese false cypress / Sawara
------------------------------ Species      thyoides (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (atrovirens, ericoides, kewensis, nana, pseudosquarrosa, pumila, sphaeroidea, variegata) <"at least 42 cultivars">        Atlantic white cypress or cedar
------------------------- Genus      Cryptomeria
------------------------------ Species      japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D.Don (araucarioides, compacta, elegans, fortunei, generalis, kawaii, lobbiana, lobbii, mairei, mucronata, nana, nigricans, pungens, tansu, variegata, viridis) <"at least 131 cultivars">       Japanese cryptomeria or cedar / Sugi
------------------------- Genus      Cupressus (Callitropsis, Chamaecyparis, Hesperocyparis)
------------------------------ Species      arizonica Greene (benthamii) <"at least 42 cultivars">       Arizona cypress
------------------------------ Species      funebris Endl. (pendula)        Chinese weeping cypress
------------------------------ Species      goveniana Gordon (aromatica, attenuata, bourgeauii, californica, cornuta, pigmaea, silbae)        Mendocino pygmy cypress
------------------------------ Species      lusitanica Mill. (benthamii, coulteri, excelsa, glauca, karwinskiana, lindleyi, mexicana, pendula, sinensis, thurifera, uhdeana) <"at least 16 cultivars">       Cedro blanco / Teotlate / Mexican white cedar
------------------------------ Species      macrocarpa Hartw. (hartwegii, lambertiana, reinwardtii) <"at least 67 cultivars">       Monterey cypress
------------------------------ Species      nootkatensis D.Don (americana, nutkatensis)        Nootka cypress / Alaska yellow cedar
------------------------------ Species      sempervirens L. (conoidea, elongata, expansa, fastigiata, foemina, globulifera, horizontalis, lugubris, mariae, mas, orientalis, patula, pyramidalis, roylei, sphaerocarpa, stricta, thujifolia, thujiformis, thujioides, tournefortii, umbilicata) <"at least 13 cultivars">       Italian or Mediterranean or Tuscan or Graveyard cypress / Pencil pine
------------------------- Genus      Diselma (Fitzroya)
------------------------------ Species      archeri Hook.f.        Dwarf or Cheshunt pine
------------------------- Genus      Glyptostrobus (Cuprespinnata, Cupressepinnata, Taxodium, Thuja)
------------------------------ Species      pensilis (Staunton ex D.Don) K.Koch (aquaticus, heterophyllus, sinensis) X        Chinese swamp cypress
------------------------- Genus      Juniperus (Sabina)
------------------------------ Species      barbadensis L.        Juniper
------------------------------ Species      californica Carrière (cedrosiana, cerrosianus, pyriformis)        California juniper
------------------------------ Species      chinensis L. (barbadensis, cabiancae, cernua, dimorpha, flagelliformis, foemina, fortunei, gaussenii, jacobii, japonica, keteleeri, reevesiana, sargentii, shepherdii, sinensis, sphaerica, struthiacea, thunbergii, virginica) 4 <"at least 80 cultivars">       Chinese juniper / Yuan bai / Shimpaku / Ibuki / Byakushin / Miyama-byakushin / Sinensis evergreen / Cemara sinensis / Jinbaek
------------------------------ Species      communis L. (albanica, argaea, borealis, caucasica, compressa, cracovia, dealbata, depressa, difformis, echinoformis, elliptica, fastigiata, hemisphaerica, hibernica, hornibrockii, interrupta, kanitzii, microphylla, niemannii, oblonga-pendula, oblonopendula, oxycedrus, relexa, saxatilis, suecica, taurica, uralensis, vulgaris, withmanniana) 7 <"at least 110 cultivars">       Common juniper
------------------------------ Species      deppeana Steud. (foetida, gigantea, mexicana, pachyderma, pachyphlaea, thurifera)        Alligator or checkerbark juniper
------------------------------ Species      formosana Hayata        Taiwan juniper
------------------------------ Species      horizontalis Moench (hudsonica, prostrata, racemosa, repens, sabina, virginiana) <"at least 96 cultivars">       Creeping juniper or cedar / Crocodile cypress / Cemara buaya
------------------------------ Species      monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg. (gymnocarpa, mexicana)        One-seed juniper
------------------------------ Species      occidentalis Hook. (andina, dealbata, pseudocupressus) <"at least 5 cultivars">       Western or Sierra juniper
------------------------------ Species      phoenicea L. (bacciformis, divaricata, formosa, langoldiana, lycia, malacocarpa, myosuros, myurus, terminalis, tetragona)        Phoenicean juniper / Arar
------------------------------ Species      procumbens (Siebold ex Endl.) Miq. (chinensis, japonica) <"at least 7 cultivars">       Japanese garden juniper / Hai-byakushin / Sonare
------------------------------ Species      rigida Siebold & Zucc. (arborea, communis, conferta, seoulensis, utilis) <"at least 25 cultivars">       Needle or Temple or Stiff-leaved or Shore or Japanese shore or Blue Pacifica juniper / Tosho / Nezu / Muro / Hai-nezu / Duri fir / Cemara duri
------------------------------ Species      sabina L. (alpina, excelsa, humilis, lusitanica, officinalis, parsonii, tamariscifolia) <"at least 32 cultivars">       Savin or Dahurian or Parson's juniper / Savin / Xing an yuan bai
------------------------------ Species      scopulorum Sarg. (excelsa, virginiana) <"at least 65 cultivars">       Rocky Mountain juniper
------------------------------ Species      squamata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don (densa, franchetiana, recurva) 18 <"at least 23 cultivars">       Flaky or Himalayan or Singleseed juniper / Gao shan bai
------------------------------ Species      thurifera L. (bonatiana, cinerea, foetida, gallica, hispanica, sabinoides)        Spanish juniper
------------------------------ Species      virginiana L. (alba, arborescens, argentea, bedfordiana, cannartii, caroliana, caroliniana, chamberlaynii, cinerascens, dioica, foetida, fragrans, glauca, gossainthanea, hermannii, nutans, polymorpha, schottii, silicicola, smithipendula, tripartita) <"at least 65 cultivars">       Eastern Red-cedar or juniper / Red or Pencil cedar
------------------------- Genus      Metasequoia
------------------------------ Species      glyptostroboides Hu & W.C.Cheng (honshuenensis, neopangaea) X <"at least 36 cultivars">        Dawn redwood
------------------------- Genus      Platycladus (Biota, Retinispora, Thuja)
------------------------------ Species      orientalis (L.) Franco (chengii, stricta) <"at least 230 cultivars">        Oriental arborvitae / Biota / Konote-gashiwa
------------------------- Genus      Sequoia (Taxodium)
------------------------------ Species      sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. (pyramidata, religiosa, taxifolia) <"at least 50 cultivars">        California or coast redwood
------------------------- Genus      Sequoiadendron (Americus, Sequoia, Taxodium, Washintonia, Wellingtonia)
------------------------------ Species      giganteum (Lindl.) J.Buchholz <"at least 77 cultivars">        Giant sequoia or redwood
------------------------- Genus      Tetraclinis (Callitris, Cupressus, Thuja)
------------------------------ Species      articulata (Vahl) Mast.        Sandarac / Sictus tree / Araar / Barbary or Algerian thuja / Atlas cypresse / Gliedercypresse / Alerce / Gharghar / Bois de titre / Barbary arbor-vitae / Mediterranean alerce / Citron-wood tree / African juniper
------------------------- Genus      Thuja (Retinospora)   * EctoMycorrhizal
------------------------------ Species      occidentalis L. (bodmeri, canadensis, caucasica, compacta, devriesiana, ellwangeriana, ericoides, globosa, hoveyi, minor, nana, obtusa, odorata, procera, recurva, sibirica, tatarica, theophrasti, variegata, vervaeneana) <"at least 309 cultivars">       Northern or Atlantic or Eastern or False white cedar / Hackmatack / Lebensbaum / Techny or American arborvitae
------------------------------ Species      standishii (Gordon) Carrière (gigantea, japonica, odorata)        Japanese thuja / Nezuko / Kurobe
------------------------- Genus      Thujopsis
------------------------------ Species      dolabrata (L.f.) Siebold & Zucc. (atrovirens, laetevirens) <"at least 23 cultivars">        Asunaro / False arborvita
------------------------- Genus      Widdringtonia (Callitris, Cupressus, Juniperus, Pachylepis, Thuja)
------------------------------ Species      nodiflora (L.) E.Powrie (commersonii, cupressoides, dracomontana, juniperoides, mahonii, natalensis, stipitata)        Cape or Mountain cypress
------------------------------ Species      wallichii Endl. ex Carrière (cedarbergensis, wallichiana)        Clanwilliam cedar
-------------------- Family      Phyllocladaceae, the phyllocladus family
------------------------- Genus      Phyllocladus
------------------------------ Species      aspleniifolius (Labill.) Hook.f.         Celery-top pine
-------------------- Family      Pinaceae, the pine family   EctoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Abies (Picea, Pinus)
------------------------------ Species      alba Mill. (abies, argentea, baldensis, candicans, chlorocarpa, duplex, excelsa, metensis, miniata, minor, nobilis, pardei, pectinata, picea, rinzii, taxifolia, tenuirifolia, vulgaris) <"at least 55 cultivars">        European or silver fir
------------------------------ Species      balsamea (L.) Mill. (balsamifera, fraseri, hudsonia, minor) <"at least 44 cultivars">        Balsam fir
------------------------------ Species      concolor (Gordon) Lindl. ex Hildebr. (grandis, lowiana, lowii, parsonsiana, parsonii) <"at least 104 cultivars">        White fir
------------------------------ Species      firma Siebold & Zucc. (bifida, momi, thunbergii) <"at least 7 cultivars">        Momi fir
------------------------------ Species      grandis (Douglas ex D.Don) Lindl. (aromatica, excelsior, gordoniana, lasiocarpa, occidentalis, parsonii, parsonsiana) <"at least 9 cultivars">        Grand or Giant or Lowland white or Great silver or Western white or Vancouver or Oregon fir
------------------------------ Species      homolepis Siebold & Zucc. (brachyphylla, finhonnoskiana, firma, harryana, tschonoskiana) <"at least 15 cultivars">        Nikko fir / Urajiro-momi
------------------------------ Species      koreana E.H.Wilson <"at least 101 cultivars">        Korean fir / Gusang namu
------------------------------ Species      lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (amabilis, balsamea, bifolia, concolor, lasciocarpa, subalpina) <"at least 38 cultivars">        Subalpine or Rocky Mountain fir
------------------------------ Species      nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (alba, pectinata)        Sicilian fir
------------------------------ Species      nephrolepis (Trautv. ex Maxim.) Maxim. (koreana, sibirica, sibiriconephrolepis, veitchii, yoneyamae)        Manchurian fir / Bunbi tree
------------------------------ Species      pinsapo Boiss. (hispanica) <"at least 26 cultivars">        Spanish fir
------------------------------ Species      sachalinensis (F.Schmidt) Mast. (akatodo, homolepis, nephrolepis, sacalinensis, veitchii) <"at least 2 cultivars">        Sakhalin fir / Todo-matsu
------------------------- Genus      Cedrus
------------------------------ Species      atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière (africana, argentea, libani, libanitica, libanotica) <"at least 33 cultivars">        Atlas deodar or cedar
------------------------------ Species      deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don (indica) <"at least 96 cultivars">        Deodar or Himalayan cedar / Devdar / Xue song
------------------------------ Species      libani A.Rich. (brevifolia, cedrus, effusa, elegans, libanensis, libanitica, libanotica, patula) <"at least 31 cultivars">        Cedar of Lebanon / Cyprus cedar
------------------------- Genus      Larix  (Pinus) #
------------------------------ Species      decidua Mill. (caducifolia, communis, europaea, excelsa, gracilis, larix, pyramidalis, sudetica, vulgaris) <"at least 32 cultivars">        European larch
------------------------------ Species      kaempferi (Lamb.) Carrière (japonica, leptolepis, orientalis) <"at least 50 cultivars">        Japanese larch / Karamatsu
------------------------------ Species      laricina (Du Roi) K.Koch (alaskensis, americana, fraseri, intermedia, microcarpa, rubra, tenuifolia) <"at least 17 cultivars">        Tamarack or American larch / Tamarack / Hackmatack
------------------------------ Species      occidentalis Nutt. <"at least 2 cultivars">        Western larch
------------------------------ Species      sibirica Ledeb. (altaica, archangelica, europaea, pseudolarix, russica, sibirica, sukaczewii) <"at least 7 cultivars">        Siberian or Russian larch
------------------------- Genus      Picea (Abies, Pinus)
------------------------------ Species      abies (L.) H.Karst. (alpestris, cranstonii, elegantissima, excelsa, finedonensis, gregoryana, integrisquamis, maxwellii, montana, obovata, remontii, rubra, subarctica, velebitica, viminalis, vulgaris) <"at least 341 cultivars">        Norway or Common or Hondo spruce / Doitsu-tohi
------------------------------ Species      englemannii Parry ex Engelm. (columbiana, glauca) <"at least 41 cultivars">        Engelmann spruce
------------------------------ Species      glauca (Moench) Voss (acutissima, alba, canadensis, coerulea, laxa, tschugatskoyae) <"at least 119 cultivars">        White spruce
------------------------------ Species      glehnii (F.Schmidt) Mast. <"at least 13 cultivars">        Common Ezo or Glehn's or Sakhalin spruce / Aka-ezomatsu
------------------------------ Species      jezoensis (Siebold & Zucc.) Carrière (ajanensis, austromandshurica, hondoensis, kamtchatkensis, manshurica, microsperma, yezomonii) <"at least 11 cultivars">        Jezo or Yezo spruce / Kuro-ezomatsu
------------------------------ Species      mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (brevifolia, ericoides, nigra) <"at least 27 cultivars">        Black spruce
------------------------------ Species      orientalis (L.) Peterm. (withmanniana) <"at least 64 cultivars">        Caucasian or Oriental spruce
------------------------------ Species      pungens Engelm. (commutata, menziesii, parryana) <"at least 228 cultivars">        Blue or Colorado blue spruce
------------------------------ Species      rubens Sarg. (americana, australis, nigra, rubra) <"at least 8 cultivars">        Red spruce
------------------------------ Species      sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière (falcata, grandis, menziesii) <"at least 36 cultivars">        Sitka spruce
------------------------------ Species      torano (Siebold ex K.Koch) Koehne (polita) <"at least 2 cultivars">        Tiger-tail spruce / Hari-momi / Bara-momi / Torano-momi
------------------------- Genus       Pinus (Apinus, Strobus)
------------------------------ Species      aristata Engelm. (balfouriana) <"at least 57 cultivars">        Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine
------------------------------ Species      armandii Franch. (excelsa, levis, scipioniformis)        Chinese white pine
------------------------------ Species      balfouriana Balf.        Foxtail pine
------------------------------ Species      banksiana Lamb. (divaricata, hudsonica, rupestris, sylvestris) <"at least 35 cultivars">        Jack pine
------------------------------ Species      brutia Ten. (eldarica, persica)        Eldarica or Afghan or Mondel or Elder or Calabrian pine
------------------------------ Species      cembra L. (humistrata, montana) <"at least 76 cultivars">        Swiss or Arolla pine
------------------------------ Species      cembroides Zucc. (llaveana, osteosperma) <"at least 7 cultivars">        Mexican pinyon
------------------------------ Species      clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg. (inops, virginiana)        Sand or Sandhill pine
------------------------------ Species      contorta Douglas ex Loudon (bolanderi, inops, macintoshiana) W  <"at least 25 cultivars">        Lodgepole or Shore pine
------------------------------ Species      densiflora Siebold & Zucc. (funebris, japonica, scopifera, sylvestris) <"at least 89 cultivars">        Japanese red pine / Aka-matsu
------------------------------ Species      edulis Engelm. (cembroides, monophylla) <"at least 4 cultivars">        Colorado or Two-needle pinyon / Pinon pine
------------------------------ Species      elliottii Engelm. (densa, heterophylla, taeda) W       Slash pine
------------------------------ Species      flexilis E.James (lambertiana, novaemexicana) <"at least 81 cultivars">        Limber pine
------------------------------ Species      glabra Walter        Spruce pine
------------------------------ Species      halepensis Mill. (abasica, abchasica, arabic, carica, ceciliae, colchica, genuensis, hierosolimitana, hispanica, loiseleuriana, maritima, paroliniana, parolinii, penicillus, pseudohalepensis, saportae) <"at least 6 cultivars">        Aleppo pine
------------------------------ Species      heldreichii Christ (laricio, leucodermis, nigra, pindica)        Bosnian pine
------------------------------ Species      kesiya Royle ex Gordon (cavendishiana, insularis, kasya, khasya, khasyana)        Tinyu / Khasya pine / Tapulao / Pin a trois feuilles / Mai hing / Chuang
------------------------------ Species      koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. (cembra, mandschurica, prokoraiensis, strobus) <"at least 33 cultivars">        Korean cedar or pine / Chosen-goyo / Chosen-matsu / Hong song
------------------------------ Species      merkusii Jungh. & de Vriese (finlaysoniana, merkiana, sumatrana)        Merkus or Mindoro or Sumatran pine / Thong nhua / Thong hai la / Tusam Sumatera
------------------------------ Species      monophylla Torr. & Frém. (californiarum, cembroides, edulis, fallax, fremontiana) <"at least 13 cultivars">        Singleleaf pinon / One-leaved or Gray or Fremont or Nevada nut pine
------------------------------ Species      morrisonicola Hayata (formosana, hayatana, parviflora, uyematsui)        Taiwan five-needle or shortleaf or white pine / Taiwan wuzhensong
------------------------------ Species      mugo Turra (applanata, carpathicus, digenea, echinata, fischeri, magellensis, montana, mughus, obliqua, pumilio, rostrata, rubriflora, squamosa, sudeticus, sylvestris, uncinata, wettsteinii) <"at least 313 cultivars">        Mountain or Mugo pine
------------------------------ Species      nigra J.F.Arnold (austriaca, banatica, laricio, nigricans) <"at least 87 cultivars">        European black or Austrian pine
------------------------------ Species      palustris Mill. (australis, longifolia, palmieri, taeda)        Longleaf pine
------------------------------ Species      parviflora Siebold & Zucc. (cembra, heterophylla, himekomatsu, mayrii, pentaphylla) <"at least 300 cultivars">        Five-needle or Japanese white pine / Hime-ko-matsu / Goyo-matsu
------------------------------ Species      patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham.        Patula or Mexican weeping or Spreading-leave pine / Pino patula / Pino lloron
------------------------------ Species      pinea L. (africana, aracanensis, arctica, esculenta, fastuosa, fragilis, maderiensis, sativa) <"at least 5 cultivars">        Italian or Mediterranean stone pine / Umbrella or Parasol pine / Pinheiro manso / Pino pinonero or manso or doncel or albar / Pinu granatu
------------------------------ Species      ponderosa Douglas ex C.Lawson (beardsleyi, benthamiana, craigiana, engelmannii, jeffreyi, nootkatensis, parryana, resinosa, sinclairiana, washoensis) <"at least 47 cultivars">        Ponderosa or Bull or Blackjack or Western yellow pine
------------------------------ Species      pumila (Pall.) Regel (cembra, nana) <"at least 43 cultivars">        Siberian dwarf or Japanese stone or creeping pine / Hai-matsu
------------------------------ Species      radiata D.Don (adunca, californica, insignis, montereyensis, rigida, sinclairii, tuberculata) W  <"at least 22 cultivars">        Monterey or Insignis or Radiata pine / Radiataden
------------------------------ Species      rigida Mill. (fraseri, loddigesii, taeda) <"at least 9 cultivars">        Northern pitch or Pitch pine / Pin rigide / Amerika-sanyosho
------------------------------ Species      roxburghii Sarg. (longifolia)        Chir pine
------------------------------ Species      serotina Michx. (alopecuroides, rigida)        Pond or Marsh or Pocosin pine
------------------------------ Species      strobiformis Engelm. (ayacahuite, novogaliciana) <"at least 8 cultivars">        Mexican or Chihuahuan or Southwestern white pine / Pino blanco or enano / Pinabete
------------------------------ Species      strobus L. (nivea, tenuifolia, umbraculifera) <"at least 203 cultivars">        Eastern or Northern white pine / Weymouth pine / Pin blanc
------------------------------ Species      sylvestris L. (binatofolio, borealis, cretacea, ericetorum, erzeroomica, fominii, frieseana, genevensis, hagenaviensis, krylovii, lapponica, montana, mughus, resinosa, rigensis, rubra, scariosa, tartarica) <"at least 216 cultivars">        Scots pine / Pin sauvage / Waldkiefer / Pino silvestre / Furu / Sosna zwyczajna / Pinheiro-da-escocia
------------------------------ Species      tabuliformis Carrière [tabulaeformis] (densata, densiflora, leucosperma, sinensis, taihangshanensis, tokunagae, wilsonii)        Chinese or Chinese red or Chinese hard pine
------------------------------ Species      taeda L. (lutea, mughoides)        Loblolly pine
------------------------------ Species      taiwanensis Hayata (brevispica, hwangshanensis, luchuensis) 7        Taiwan red pine / Tai wan song
------------------------------ Species      thunbergii Parl. (massoniana, sylvestris, thunbergiana) <"at least 88 cultivars">        Japanese black pine / Kuro-matsu / O-matsu / Pino negro japones
------------------------------ Species      virginiana Mill. (inops, ruthenica, turbinata) <"at least 11 cultivars">        Virginia or Scrub or Spruce or Jersey pine
------------------------- Genus      Pseudolarix  #
------------------------------ Species      amabilis (J.Nelson) Rehder (fortunei, pourtetii) <"at least 3 cultivars">        Golden larch
------------------------- Genus      Pseudotsuga (Abies, Pinus, Tsuga)
------------------------------ Species      japonica (Shiras.) Beissn.        Japanese Douglas-fir / Pond cypress / Goyo-toga / Togo-sawara
------------------------------ Species      menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (douglasii, mucronata, taxifolia, vancouverensis) W  <"at least 335 cultivars">        Douglas fir / Oregon pine / Douglas spruce
------------------------- Genus      Tsuga (Abies, Picea, Pinus)
------------------------------ Species      canadensis (L.) Carrière (americana) <"at least 323 cultivars">        Eastern or Canadian hemlock
------------------------------ Species      caroliniana Engelm. <"at least 14 cultivars">        Carolina hemlock
------------------------------ Species      diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast. (blaringhemii) <"at least 13 cultivars">        Northern Japanese hemlock / Kome-tsuga
------------------------------ Species      heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (albertiana) <"at least 19 cultivars">        Western hemlock
------------------------------ Species      mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière (pattoniana, pattonii, williamsonii) <"at least 25 cultivars">        Mountain hemlock
------------------------------ Species      sieboldii Carrière (araragi, tsuja) <"at least 7 cultivars">        Southern Japanese hemlock / Tsuga
-------------------- Family      Podocarpaceae, the podocarp family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Afrocarpus (Nageia, Podocarpus)
------------------------------ Species      falcatus (Thunb.) C.N.Page (gaussenii)        Common or Bastard or Outeniqua yellowwood / African fern pine / Weeping yew / Outeniekwa-geelhout / Mogobagoba / Umkhoba / Umsonti
------------------------------ Species      gracilior (Pilg.) C.N.Page        Fern or African fern pine / Musengera
------------------------- Genus      Dacrycarpus (Nageia, Podocarpus)
------------------------------ Species      dacrydioides (A.Rich.) de Laub.        Kahikatea
------------------------- Genus      Lagarostrobos
------------------------------ Species      franklinii (Hook.f.) Quinn        Huon pine / Macquarie pine
------------------------- Genus      Nageia (Podocarpus)
------------------------------ Species      nagi (Thunb.) Kuntze (caesia, cuspidata, grandifolia, japonica, ovata)        Nageia / Nagi
------------------------- Genus      Podocarpus (Margbensonia, Nageia)
------------------------------ Species      alpinus R.Br. ex Hook.f. (parvifolius, totara)        Podocarpus
------------------------------ Species      brevifolius (Stapf) Foxw. (neriifolius)        Tung La Han tree
------------------------------ Species      chinensis Wall. ex J.Forbes (appressus, corrugatus, flagelliformis, japonicus, lanceolata, macrophyllus, maki, makoyi, miquelia)        Chinese podocarpus / Rakan-maki
------------------------------ Species      costalis C.Presl        Arius
------------------------------ Species      elatus R.Br. ex Endl. (acicularis)        Illawarra plum tree / Plum or Brown pine
------------------------------ Species      guatemalensis Standl. (allenii, pinetorum)        Cipresillo / Pinillo
------------------------------ Species      macrophyllus (Thunb.) Sweet (canaliculatus, forrestii, longifolia, macrophylla, maki, sweetii, verticillatus) 18 <"at least 9 cultivars">        Buddhist pine / Japanese yew / Inu-maki / Maki / Kusa-maki / Hon-maki
------------------------------ Species      neriifolius D.Don (decipiens, discolor, endlicherianus, junghuhnianus, leptostachyus, neglectus, polyanthus)        Black pine or Oleander podocarp / Black or Brown pine / Amanu / Bukiti / Jati bukit
------------------------------ Species      nivalis Hook. (erectus, montanus) <"at least 27 cultivars">        Mountain or Snow totara
------------------------------ Species      rumphii Blume (bracteatus, koordersii, philipnensis, sprengelii)        Malakauayan / Kayu china / Sandu / Rangunjela
------------------------------ Species      spinulosus (Sm.) R.Br. ex Mirb. (bidwillii, ensifolius, laetus, pungens)        Dwarf plum pine / Spiny-leaf podocarp
------------------------------ Species      totara G.Benn. ex D.Don (variegatus) <"at least 7 cultivars">        Totara
-------------------- Family      Sciadopityaceae, the Japanese umbrella pine family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Sciadopitys
------------------------------ Species      verticillata (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc.  <"at least 84 cultivars">        Koya-maki / Japanese umbrella-pine
-------------------- Family      Taxaceae, the yew family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Taxus   # all parts, fresh or dried, are toxic to humans and other mammals#
------------------------------ Species      baccata L.  <"at least 234 cultivars">        English or Common yew
------------------------------ Species      cuspidata Siebold & Zucc.  <"at least 77 cultivars">        Japanese or Spreading yew / Kyaraboku
------------------------------ Species      wallichiana Zucc.  (nucifera, yunnanensis)        Himalayan yew / Xu mi hong dou shan
-------------------- Family      Taxodiaceae, the bald cypress family
------------------------- Genus      Taxodium  
------------------------------ Species      ascendens Brongn.         Pond cypress
------------------------------ Species      distichum (L.) Rich.  <"at least 40 cultivars">        Bald or Red or Swamp or Southern or White or Gulf or Deciduous cypress / Rakuusho
------------------------------ Species      mucronatum Ten.         Montezuma cypress / Sabino / Ahuehuete
--------------- Order      Ginkgoales
-------------------- Family      Ginkgoceae, the ginkgo family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Ginkgo  (Salisburia)  #  o
------------------------------ Species      biloba L.  7 <"at least 55 cultivars">        Ginkgo / Maidenhair tree / Yin xing shu

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Index by Family
Anthophyta
Cycadophyta
Pinophyta
Pteridophyta
Notes
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae I
Magnoliophyta - Asteridae
Magnoliophyta - Caryophyllidae
Magnoliophyta - Dilleniidae
Magnoliophyta - Hamamelididae
Magnoliophyta - Magnoliidae
Magnoliophyta - Ranunculidae
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae II


To show patterns of "ease" with known/experienced plants, to find suggested "ease" with unknown/new plants,
to uncover previously unsuspected patterns.
Of course, location and microclimate will ultimately determine when members of the same genus can be grown near each other.


This listing includes more specimens than are delineated in the strict Japanese sense of the word "bonsai."
Enthusiasts around the world are incorporating more and often uniquely local types of plants in their magical miniature landscape compositions,
and thus these pages are compiled with this larger reference in mind.

We are using here the APG II System, with some blending of a modified Cronquist System.
We acknowledge that for some of these plants there could be disagreement regarding ranks above the family level.

(Non-italicized genus or species names) in parenthesis are synonyms of the preceding italicized official genus or species.
Small print non-italicized names after the official species name indicate the author(s) of the original genus placement;
if the genus was changed, we show (the original author(s) in parentheses) followed by the current author, per standard citation practices.
Where a synonym of one plant is also the same as another actual listed species for that genus,
the first plant was listed in some places as a variety of the synoynm rather than as its own species as presented here.
Due to space considerations, we are not including the author(s) for the synonyms.
[Non-italicized genus names] in brackets are alternative but incorrect spellings of the preceding italicized official genus.
Most of the botanical names herein follow The Plant List.


We have started to indicate after the genus name which plants as bonsai are especially favored for their flowers (*),
which are favored for their fruits (o), and which are favored for their colored leaves (#), particularly in autumn.
Please keep in mind that the colors of these symbols are arbitrary and do not necessarily reflect the actual color of the flowers and/or fruits so indicated.
Not all members of the genus may produce these favors.

X after a name indicates rare and/or endangered species.

P after a name indicates pioneer plants, the first to colonize a disturbed or damaged community, fast growers with lots of long-viable seeds, but not particularly long-lived as mature plants.

W after a name indicates weedy or invasive species in some locations, so be careful with your discarded material or parts thereof.

The twenty-three most popular species nowadays are indicated in bolded green.

The original "Four Gentlemen," "Seven Virtuous Ones," and "Eighteen Scholars" are so indicated by either 4, 7, or 18 after the species name.

The climate zone where they are growing will affect whether a few of these plants are perennials or are completely deciduous.



Anyone who knows of additional species used as bonsai or updates/corrections to this listing
is asked to please contact  rjb@magiminiland.org.  Thank-you.



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