* 1506, Wang Ao's
as apparently specialty of Suzhou, particularly of Tiger Hill, elite
resort spot to northwest and connected to Suzhou by canal,
along which suburbs stretched.
* c.1547, gazetteer described types of penjing styles around Hangzhou area. (232)
* At least by this century, shops of name "Garden of Dragon Flowers," to southwest of Shanghai, became engaged in cultivating miniature trees in containers. (Would continue to present day.) (233)
* Gu Qiyuan's Kezuo zhuiyu stressed importance of "pictorial idea," as well as providing evidence that Suzhou was still considered to be source of finest exponents of art of miniature landscapes. (234)
* It is recorded that bamboo carver Zhu Xiaosong (c.1520-87, son of one of China's greatest bamboo carving masters, Zhu Sansong, poet, painter, calligrapher, and founder of Jiading School), was adept at shaping small trees for connoisseurs of penjing in Shanghai. (235)
* Regional variations which emerged beginning about this time would be basis for six main penjing schools in China: Lingnan School of Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, Chuan School of Sichuan, Hai School of Shanghai, Su School of Suzhou, and Yang School of Yangzhou. (Between 16th and 19th cent., certain historic, cultural and economic factors led people in certain areas to shape trees into extremely rigid forms. Very strict rules were codified for each school and set them apart. Distinct styles produced by these schools would never account for more than just one strand in overall development of penjing.) (236)
* 1556, on morning of 23 January an earthquake, estimated in modern times to be magnitude 7.9 or 8.0, occurred in Shaanxi and affected more than 97 counties in provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, and Anhui. Area 840-kilometre (520 mi)-wide was destroyed, and in some counties 60% of population was killed. Most of population in area at time lived in yaodongs, artificial caves in loess cliffs, many of which collapsed during the catastrophe w/great loss of life. Approximately 830,000 people were killed by this deadliest earthquake ever and third deadliest natural disaster in history. "Mountains and rivers changed places and roads were destroyed. In some places, the ground suddenly rose up and formed new hills, or it sank abruptly and became new valleys. In other areas, a stream burst out in an instant, or the ground broke and new gullies appeared. Huts, official houses, temples and city walls collapsed all of a sudden." Following the earthquake, aftershocks continued several times a month for half a year.
* Celebrated Yixing, Jiangsu province kettle-making artisan Gong Gongcun created new kind of pot for landscapes by using coarse sand left over from making kettles. He imitated methods porcelain pot makers used, making very small holes in bottoms of his large pots. These new containers were called Zisha (lit., "purple sand/clay") pots and possessed properties greatly suitable for growth of potted plants, such as ability to be penetrated by water and air. Remains highly porous after being fired at temperatures, able to hold water w/out seepage in spite of its high porosity, is structurally strong w/out need for glazing, and does not crack when subjected to large and sudden temperature differences. Raw clay has excellent balance between flexibility and firmness, along w/nominal shrinkage after drying, which allows it to be easily crafted into attractive shapes and designs. Zisha clay actually comes in five main colors: purple, red, and green -- these three being most prized -- plus yellow and turquoise. Purple Zisha clay is most abundant and therefore its name is used to describe entire class of natural colour, high-mineral Yixing clays made from stone. Mineral and metal content of Zisha includes iron oxide, kaolinite, quartz, and mica. This clay also went on to be used for most highly regarded teapots because of its superior properties. (237)
* By the late 16th-early 17th cent. there were reproductions on scholars' inkstones and in catalogs thereof of Su Shi's bronze basin and green Chou-chih stone. (238)
* Private gardens reached their height of development in Ming, particularly in southeast China in such places as Suzhou, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. In their hyday, Suzhou gardens were owned by members of literati and were not so much cultivated open spaces (as in West), but settings for buildings, both residential and purely decorative, such as pavilions and shelters. Gardens were designed to be viewed from these buildings, and in addition to trees and flowers they usually had water features, ranging from ponds to onamental rocks often dragged from bottom of large lake or river where they had been eroded into unusual shapes. Sometimes gardens were separated by buildings into two or three sections, or might incorporate small island reached by nattow bridge. Reordering of priorities had taken place where gardened landscapes were no longer for productive horticulture but to be a visually composed scene, faithful to formal canons of painting composition. (239)
* c. 1550-1850, worldwide Little Ice Age occurred.
The Little Ice Age brought bitterly cold winters to many parts of world, but is most thoroughly documented in Europe and North America. In many years, snowfall was much heavier than recorded before or since, and snow lay on ground for many months longer than it does today. Many springs and summers were outstandingly cold and wet, although there was great variability between years and groups of years. It is generally agreed that there were three minima, beginning about 1650, about 1770, and 1850, each separated by slight warming intervals. Crop practices throughout Europe had to be altered to adapt to shortened, less reliable growing season.
In China, warm weather crops, such as oranges, were abandoned in Jiangxi Province near the southeast, where they had been grown for centuries.
were made using different grades of sand and stones on
takazuna-bon, black-lacquered oval tray with 2"H rim.
* Namban date from this time. Characteristically rough textured and warped containers, originally over-fired, deformed kiln rejects favored by connoisseurs of day who appreciated their rugged beauty. (These would be used to compliment slanting style and literati conifers as well as rugged bonsai material and grass plantings.) (241)
* Sen no Rikyu (1522-91), poet who codified tea ceremony developments of past century, included making carefully arranged naturalistic garden (cha-niwa) direct passage-way into now more austere tea-house. Consumption of tea was related to appreciation of and expression of authority through Chinese art objects. (242)
* Portuguese traders unloading miniature landscape stones and other imported Chinese goods depicted on screens. (243)
* Cycads were imported from southern Ryūkyū kingdom, were associated w/trade of Portuguese, and were extensively used in tea gardens and castle compounds. (244)
AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA period (1573-1603)
* Growing demand for tea utensils led to placing of orders at Japanese kilns, triggering extraordinary flourishing of domestic ceramic production. Orders were also placed abroad, notably in Korea and China, where ceramics were produced in distinctly Japanese taste. (245)
* Just before his doom, warlord Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) installed emblem of his divinity in Sokenji, his temple on Azuchi Hill -- "someone having brought him a stone suitable for the purpose, called Bonção " -- and guaranteed prosperity and a long life to all who came in to venerate it. In 1580 he had sent miniature landscape stone together w/fine tea bowl in exchange for Ishiyama fortress in Osaka.
* Imjin wars during last decade saw Japanese under Hideyoshi Toyotomi attempting to conquer China via Korea. Chinese intervention saved otherwise devestated peninsula, but many skilled craftsmen, especially potters, were carted off to revitalize Japanese ceramic industry. (247)
* By this time, all uses and pantheistic interpretations of massive forest boulders, rocks and stones had dovetailed into single, complete design, prototype of new, truly Japanese garden form. Idea of miniaturization in design of these gardens is actually "attempt to expand garden to almost cosmic proportions." (247)
* Portuguese reached China in 1514 (and then Japan in 1543). First European trade mission to Beijing in
1517 by King Manuel I of Portugal. Lisbon (until 1595) soon became hub for Chinese tea and export of Canton porcelain
that was re-exported all over Europe.
* 1520, first sample of kaolin clay from China reached Europe, brought by Portuguese. Mistakenly thought to be sole reason for porcelain's characteristics. It would be two centuries before Europeans discovered correct ingrediants on their own. (249)
* 1543, earliest European botanical garden founded at Pisa, Italy, all the herbs being grown in pots. (Teaching gardens also were established at Padua and Florence about this time.) (250)
* c.1547, living sweet orange tree was sent from China to Lisbon, Portugal by Viceroy of India. (Said to have still existed at end of 17th cent.) (251)
* By 1550 at least, Italian villas were decorated w/citrus trees grown in pots filled w/best possible compost and placed adorning terraces, walls and stairways. Winter accomodation was either indoors in a stone building, in purpose-built house in larger gardens, or in dry cave. Some trees were also planted in rows together in ground. Size and quality of fruit from these trees outweighed aesthetic considerations of plain and draughty sheds being temporarily erected every winter. Visitors found Italian gardens infinitely superior to their counterparts in Germany, France, the Low Countries and England, and returned home w/Italian concept of design and technical expertise, as well as some of basic ingrediants: myrtles, pomegranates, oleanders, oranges, and lemons. These were novelties w/in reach of nobles, merchants and kings. From simple winter quarters they could be brought out to grace parterres in summer. (252)
* Vietnamese scholar Trang Trình (1491-1585) said to have used Hòn Non Bô to provide guidance while predicting fate or destiny of others. (253)
* 1560, Spanish settlers planted three olive saplings in Lima, Peru. (Olive from this original introduction was later taken to Chile to start South America's olive industry.)
* 1564, European grape vine was imported to California via Mexico, brought by priests. (254)
* About 1569, flowerpots, including three-inch model, were made at Spanish settlement on Parris Island, in what would be South Carolina. (255)
*c.1570, Hortus Simplicium in Rome was changed into Vatican Botanical Garden. (256)
* Watering pot w/pierced rose was invented in late Middle Ages to 'imitate the rain falling from the heavens.' Earthenware Tudor thumb pot from this time released water from holes in pierced base when thumb was removed from hole. (257)
* In 16th and early 17th cent. almost any plant seemed to have been subjected to shears for topiary in European gardens, regardless of its suitability. In addition, curious plants from abroad were sent for, to be propagated by seeds and cuttings in tubs. Shared among enthusiasts, these plants were wintered by simply being moved into frost-free outhouses or else indoors into halls or long galleries. (258)
* 1582-1590, Japanese embassy w/four young native envoys was sent to Portugal, Spain and Rome. (259)
* Chinese concept of Northern and Southern Schools (so named by analogy w/two branches
of Zen Buddhism, and having no geographical significance) originated w/painter-theorist
Dong Chichang (1555-1636). Southern School equated, loosely, w/tradition of less realistic,
more spontaneous, intuitive, individualistic, often deliberately quasi-awkward scholar-amateur
artists, distinguishing them from (and elevating them above) skillful, detailed, relatively
realistic, colorful, traditional, and conservative professional painters, whom
he identified w/"Northern School." (Southern School was type of painting that would be praised
and practiced by Chinese literati of Ming and then Qing dynasties.)
* Li Rihua's Weishuixuan riji ("Ranking of Antique Objects") included "strange rocks of rugged and picturesque type" followed by "a combination of some old, elegant pines and small needle-like rushes in a fine pot" and "plum trees and bamboos that are fit for poetry."
* 1614, preface to Lin Youlin's four volume Su Yuan Shi Pu ("Stone Catalogue of the Plain Garden"), stated "...Stone collecting, in particular, is close to Chan meditation, empowering the mind to visit the Southern Palaces and Mount Jinhua."
* c.1615-1620, Wen Zhenheng's Treatise on Superfluous Things contains Tu Long's work w/detailed chapter on container landscapes and dwarf plants.
* From 1621 to 1644 and beyond, many master Yixing Zisha pot makers and artisans, such as Chen Junqing, Zhou Xiusan, Chen HeZhi, Chen Tingsheng, Sheng Zhice, and then Chen Mingyuan (famous for his rectangular pots), Yang Youlan, and Shao Yuting, among many others. Xu Wenlong was expert at floral, figurative and geometrical design, w/agile and bold lines which proved his own unique style. (261)
* 1630, treatise "Penjing" by Wu Chutai.
* Monograph by Liu Luan on "landscape in a container" and "very small landscapes." (262)
* Display stands -- especially custom-made ones --became increasingly important to draw attention to objects such as antiques and status goods and thus to reinforce their aesthetic qualities. Rocks were considered both important social commodities and objects of aesthetic enjoyment. (Tradition of display would reach its apogee in middle of next century.) (263)
* People from China began going to island of Taiwan no later than Yuan Dynasty, and likely much earlier. Longest-standing and most numerous visitors were fishermen from Fujian, who arrived each winter -- a hundred junks strong -- to catch mullet. These junks also brought traders who sought aboriginal deer products, especially in late 16th cent, when Sino-aboriginal trade increased considerably. (In 1544, Portuguese ship had sighted main island of Taiwan and dubbed it "Ilha Formosa", "Beautiful Island.") When Dutch arrived in 1623, around fifteen hundred Chinese lived or sojourned in southwestern Taiwan. Most were there temporarily, for fishing, hunting, and trading, and Chinese population of Taiwan probably fluctuated throughout year, peaking each winter w/arrival of the fishing junks from Fujian. In 1630s, shortly after members of Dutch East India Company established trading port on Taiwan, they were unable to persuade Taiwan's aborigines to raise rice and sugar for sale -- most were content to plant just enough for themselves and their families. So they settled instead on more unusual plan: encourage Chinese immigration mainly from province of Fujian w/tax breaks and free land, using their powerful military to protect pioneers from aboriginal assault. (Less costly than importing laborers from Europe.) Company created calculable economic and social environment, making Taiwan safe place for Chinese to move to and invest in, whether they were poor peasants or rich entrepreneurs. Colony grew and prospered, becoming, in essence, Chinese settlement under Dutch rule. Colony's revenues were drawn almost entirely from Chinese settlers, through taxes, tolls, and licenses. Company authorities acted against organizations they believed to be competitors: Chinese pirates and smugglers, Japanese traders, and recalcitrant aborigines. (Smaller Spanish colony on north end of island from 1626-1642.) (264)
* Containers exported to Japan during 17th and 18th cent. would be referred to as Kowatari ("old crossing"). Extremely elegant and would harmonize well w/old dwarfed trees, these were made between 1465 and about 1800. Many came from Yixing in Jiangsu province -- unglazed and usually purplish-brown -- and some others from around Canton, particularly during the Ming. Some porcelain containers started to be used for plants now in China. (265)
QING (MANCHU) DYNASTY (1644-1911)
* 1662, Chinese naval and troop forces of Southern Fujian led by pirate general Koxinga defeated Dutch in Taiwan, subsequently expelling Dutch government and military from island. Following fall of Ming Dynasty, Koxinga retreated to Taiwan as self-styled Ming loyalist and established Kingdom of Tungning (1662-83) which continued to launch raids on south-east coast of mainland China well into Qing Dynasty, attempting to recover mainland China. (266)
* 1679, first edition of Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting published. Some illustrations were in color. Mixing of colors and the varieties of brush and brush-stroke are discussed as means towards representation of the spirit of object and of scene as a whole. Likewise trees and plants should illustrate qualities which such plants embody. (Expanded version would be published in 1701. Initially regarded only as guide for beginners, recognition came slowly that this was uniquely important and comprehensive book, the Chinese painting handbook. Many editions would be printed.) (267)
* 1683, Koxinga's grandson defeated and Qing formally annexed Taiwan, placing it under jurisdiction of Fujian province. (268)
* Especially during golden age or zenith of Kang to Qian ruling periods (1661-1796), art of potted landscapes increased to considerable level of development. Trend had already begun to make pots in medium smaller size. Relief sculpture pattern of Late Ming was changed into Chinese colored ink or cinnabar dye pictures. Celebrities such as Zheng Banqiao had hand in drawing of Zisha pot. These were not merely containers of potted ornamental plants but also considerably valuable works of art. (269)
* Pi-chuan Hua-ching, general botany book published in 1688, defined term penzai as "to plant into a pot" and includes entire chapter on art of penjing creation. (270)
* Rocks destined for display in basin were usually seen as adjuncts to garden, meant to be viewed outdoors; those distinguished by wooden stand were given honored positions in scholar's studio, alongside favored antiques. Wooden stands w/naturalistic motifs became increasingly popular for use w/rocks. Often design carved in stand continued theme of carving on display, or craggy scholars' rock was placed on stand of polished wood, or rock was placed on stand embellished w/flowers or mountain scenery. (271)
* 1602, Gekkei Shocho wrote poem about dwarfed pine.
EDO period (1603-1868)
* 1598-1618, Hideyoshi, general, garden-lover and noted seeker of stones, rebuilt 12th cent. garden of Sambo-in temple. More than 700 rocks were brought together to make most varied and sumptuous of all Japanese stone gardens. Bushes, bridges, lanterns, cascade, streams and lakes combined to achieve ultimate cherry-viewing site. (273)
* High-ranking samurai and tea ceremony master Sansai Hosokawa (1564-1645) founded Hosokawa school of bonseki. (274)
* 1615, "Edicts of the Conduct of the Nobility" proclaimed by central Tokugawa government had this as first article: "The imperial court should keep to the arts and above all pursue learning." Nobility was thus forced to develop knowledge and the arts; perhaps only purpose for this command was to keep nobility out of politics. Although various sects of Buddhism continued to be tolerated as popular religion, official Tokugawa patronage was given to orthodox [Song dynasty Neo-]Confucianism w/its firm foundation of discipline and obedience. This resulted in training of Chinese-style scholars, many of whom developed an interest in it as part of their cultural world. (275)
* 1619, during Tokugawa Period, there would be 154 famines, of which 21 were widespread and serious, especially 1783-87 and 1833-37. (276)
* Shogun Iemitsu (r. 1623-1651) closed Japan entirely to most foreign commercial transactions, permitting only limited numbers of Dutch (Protestants -- as opposed to divided-loyalty-with-distant-pope Catholics) and Chinese. He was a hachi-no-ki enthusiast, however. Story tells of Okubo Hikozemon (1560-1639), councillor to shogun, who threw one of Iemitsu's favorite trees away in the garden -- right in front of shogun in order to dissuade him from spending so much time and attention on these trees. In spite of servant's efforts, Iemitsu never gave up artform he continued to love. (There is also different tale of a samurai's gardener who killed himself when his master insulted a hachi-no-ki of which the artisan was especially proud.) Daimyo ("great name" lords) were required to spend every other year in capital of Edo, as another way of keeping extra income and resources in check. Some of them, impressed w/landscapes travelled through and nearby on way from Edo to their residences, contracted to have these scenes reduced in scale and reproduced along pathways of their gardens in Edo and/or in their administrative jurisdictions. As time progressed, building of artificial miniature mountains including copies of Mt. Fuji became popular. Interaction w/Dutch led to governmental-limited specialized interest in Western medicine and astronomy (and all topics remotely associated with) in order to improve agricultural production. (277)
* Dwarf Rhapis palms were smuggled in from China and would become status symbol of ruling classes. (278)
* Emperor Go-Mizuno-o (1596-1680, r.1612-1629) helped introduce use of low-rimmed oval or rectangular trays for bonseki or the display of stones, for which he was one of best-known collectors. (279)
* As trade w/China was restricted, many kilns were established throughout Japan to supplement "six ancient kilns" (Tokoname, Shigaraki, Tanba, Bizen, Echizen, and Seto) which had existed at least since before Muromachi period. (280)
* Obaku, third of today's three Zen sects, brought over from China. By this time Sōtō was major sect and beliefs of all three were spreading into upper ranks of merchant and townspeople classes. (281)
* Chinese Confucian scholar Chu Shunsui (1600-1682) emigrated to Nagasaki to flee Manchus, bringing collection of specialist penjing literature (among other works).
* Miniature potted trees called hachi-ue in 1681 horticulture book which also stated that everyone grew azaleas, even if poorest people had to use abalone shell as container. (282)
* In latter half of century and into next, gardening and landscape gardening reached its greatest stage of development -- many wonderful varieties of plants were developed and improved and new techniques and skills were learned. (283)
* c.1688-1703, major passion in Edo for potted momiji (type of Japanese maple) resulted in extraordinary number of new varieties (many well-known of today first grown then). Interest in azaleas and camellias also from this time, followed by succession of vogues for individual flowering plants and trees. (284)
* Stripped down austerity of gardens of previous age replaced w/playful ornamentation of stone lanterns, miniature bridges, water basins and exotic plants, augmentation w/religious touches, and deliberate random placement of rocks to create sensation of spontaneity. O-karikomi (topiary art) introduced in form of clipped bushes and evergreens representing clouds, stormy seas, treasure-laden ships, or outline of Mt. Horai. (285)
(bonsan) as "a stone or rough piece of wood" which serves as base of miniature landscape made with "green mosses,
& a tiny tree planted there, &c."
* 1604, description of how Chinese immigrants in Philippines were growing ficus onto hand-sized pieces of coral.
* 1609, account in England of orange house w/iron stove -- a Dutch invention to protect oranges in winter. (286)
* 1613-1620, Japanese trade mission of some 181 persons traveled to New Spain (Mexico) and southern Europe. (287)
* 1637, earliest-known English observation of dwarf potted trees (root-over-rock in a pan) in China/Macau.
* Before 1800, four embassies made their way to Beijing from Holland/Batavia (1656, 1667, 1686, 1795); six from Russia (1656, 1660, 1676, 1693, 1720, 1726); four from Portugal (1670, 1678, 1727, 1753); three from papacy (1705, 1720, 1725); and one from Britain (1793). However, to Chinese and Japanese eyes, embassies were about establishing formal relations of superiority and inferiority between themselves and foreign princes. Commerce, so important to Europeans, had subordinated place in the construction of relations of power and authority. And the Chinese wanted unique items as gifts from each country which could be identified as local products of various kingdoms, not mere interchangeable curiosities which Europeans mostly brought. Native products were understood in East as material signs of good leadership. (After establishment of Qing dynasty, Korean embassies visited annually for more than two centuries.) (288)
* 1664, earliest English usage of "conservatory" (place for conserving delicate plants in winter), "greenhouse" (house for evergreens), and "orangery" (area in garden for display of orange trees). (289)
* 1673, Chelsea Physic Garden (Apothecaries Garden of Simples) founded in London to grow and study plants for medicinal uses. Conservatory added seven years later for plants from warmer climes, and underfloor stove to heat this building added in 1684. (290)
* W/later 17th cent. French-inspired garden of parterres, topiary became primary component of garden design. Yew increasingly replaced cypress, partly because former was more severe winter-hardy. (291)
* Tree tubs were used at palatial château in Versailles outside of Paris by Louis XIV's gardeners to move orange trees out of cold each winter. Container was so innovative that it had cast-iron corners w/hinges, allowing gardeners to open it each spring and add fresh soil around roots. Container also had legs long enough that a cart could be wheeled under it. Trees were clipped into different shapes according to where they were to be placed: smaller ones for salons indoors and larger one for parterres. Orange trees also brought indoors at any season and put in silver tubs to symbolize Louis' power and ability to dominate everything, just as nature was dominated by man shaping delicate foreign orange tree to his will. Also demonstrated gulf between ruling élite and common man, whose survival depended on growing lettuce and onions instead.(292)
* 1692, German George Meister (1653-1713) mentioned dwarf trees planted in rocks seen in Japan in 1680s. Earliest known European mention of this gardening activity.
* Containers now had finer texture than those of Ming, and featured
tremendous variety of patterns. Practice of carving calligraphy or paintings
onto container surfaces dates from this time. Wooden stands and other furniture
from this time emphasized "carving": wealth of complex lines, angular forms, and exquisite
decorated structure. Perforations and carved flower patterns became common.
Some would also have silver line decorations, engraved metal mounts or mother-of-pearl,
ivory, or shell inlays. To give legitimacy to their rule, Qing court adopted
well-established Ming and earlier historical designs. Such stands would be luxurious and graceful.
* 1730-50, teacup and saucer depict European merchants bargaining w/Chinese in Canton shop, and, partly hidden behind wall partition, there is medium-size dwarf tree in pot on a stand.
* New crops from Americas and elsewhere were introduced, such as groundnut, sweet potato, and maize, and there was rapid growth in production of industrial crops such as tea, cotton, and sugar. (294)
* During the Qing period, these miniature landscapes were called "Potted Landscape" (pén jĭng), "Tray Stone Landscape" (shān shuĭ diăn jĭng), "Miniature Penjing" (xiăo pén jĭng), "Natural Tray Plaything" (tiān rán pén wán), and "Mume Penjing" (méi shù pén jĭng). (295a)
* Originating in multiple locations mainly in southern China, chrysanthemum stones (Juhuashi) were first reported in Guangdong province in 1740. They were later found in abundance in Hunan and Hubei provinces, and to some extent in three others. (295b)
* Qianlong-period (1736-1795) tastes preferred slender, columnar rocks w/deep, vertical furrows and complex profiles w/undulating edges. Also, Chinese began to prefer horizontal rocks to vertical ones, and rocks were often remounted to accommodate this change in taste. Ability to remove unglued rock from its stand was one of principal forms of interaction w/this art. (296)
* 1772, William Chamber's 92-page A Dissertation on Oriental Gardening (London), includes the observations that "'I am not ignorant,' said one of the [Chinese] artists, 'that your European planters, thinking Nature scanty in her arrangements, or being perhaps disgusted with the familiarity and commonness of natural objects, introduce artificial forms into their plantations, an cut their trees in the sapes of pyramids, flower-pots, men, fishes, and brute animas; and I have heard of colonnades, and whole palaces, formed by plants, cut as precisely as if they had been built of stone. But this is preaching variety at the expense of reason; such extravagances ought never to be tolerated, excepting in enchanted scenes; and there but very seldom; for they must be as destitute of beauty, as they are on propriety; and if the planter be a traveller, and a man of observation, he can want no such helps to variety, as he will recollect a thousand beautiful effects along the common roads of the countries through which he has passed, that may be introduced with much better success.' (pp. 42-43) and 'I have likewise seen, in Chinese plantations, walks bordered with the cut yew and elm hedges, so common in most countries in Europe, which the Chinese artists sometimes admit of, for variety's sake; but they never have the stiff appearance of our European ones; the shears are used sparingly; towards the top the branches are suffered to spread unmolested; and even in the cut parts of them are seen large masses of other plants forcing their way through; such as the sycamore, the fig, the vine, and others, whose foliage and verdure are most opposite to those of the hedge.'" (pp. 58-59) (297)
* Qian Long as a Chinese Ruler showed emperor surrounded by scholar's objets d'art, including exposed-root pine behind him and smaller dwarf potted tree at painting's edge. (298)
* 1795, Li Dou's Account of Yangzhou states that that city boasted of penjing which contained flowers and tree, or water and soil, even waterfall. Due to popularity of classical gardens and penjing at that time, "nearly every family in Yangzhou plant flowers and have penjing in their houses." Five "plum blossom trimmers" also noted, as well as monk whose penjing "always sold at very high price due to his excellent techniques and unique design." (299)
* By late 17th cent, forests throughout archipelago had been depleted due to overexploitation resulting from boom
in castle construction and urban residences. 18th cent would see discussion of causes for, alternatives to, and
* 1703, end of year earthquake and fire destroyed Edo and killed approx. 200,000 persons. (301)
* Around this time records indicate that samurai took special interest in potted ume. (302)
* Torii Kiyoharu's woodblock prints of dwarf potted trees from horticultural expert Itō Ihei's nursery. (303)
* Numerous woodblock prints by several artists depicted popular Noh drama Hachinoki.
* Hakuin Ekaku (1685-1768), artist who eventually became zealous religious reformer and transformed declining Rinzai Zen into religion of Japanese people, including commoner classes. (304)
* 1748, Kai-shi-en Gaden, first Japanese edition of Mustard Seed Garden Manual published. Had elaborate color-printing of illustrations. (305)
* Nanga or Bujinga School reached full maturity beginning in 3rd quarter of this century in Kyoto-Osaka area as thriving school of painting and as lively alternative for artists and patrons who found older and more conservative schools no longer interesting. Borrowings from Chinese scholar-amateur or literati artists had by this time been assimilated into an independent Japanese school of painting w/new and visible styles of its own. Chinese scholar-artists, trained in calligraphy since childhood as part of their Confucian education, seemed to value the brushstroke above all. Japanese were more concerned w/total effect that the painting offered the viewer. Thus, Japanese brush strokes may have been unusual or imperfect at times, or fewer w/more empty space. Elements of the temporally and culturally remote Chinese painting were employed in a more decorative and playful manner that characterizes so much of later Japanese painting. Scholars, poets, calligraphers and painters came from many parts of Japan to participate in this new intellectual and artistic scene. Tended to be men who had somehow withdrawn from, or been ejected from, highly stratified and static structure of feudal society. Emphasis on individualism by Nanga school was strength, but also weakness as the greatest masters remained isolated figures w/little significant following. Nanga did not root in Edo until late century, and after that was always a somewhat hybrid plant, even less based on Chinese models. (306)
* From c.1772-1801, there was fashion for tachibana (mandarin orange) bonsai in Osaka. In 1776 one grown on flat rock was given by shogun Ieharu to a certain daimyo. (307)
* c.1781-88, a show for traditional bonsai pines was begun to be held every year in Kyoto. Connoisseurs from five provinces and the neighboring areas would bring one or two plants each to the show in order to submit them to visitors for ranking. (308)
* From 1789-1830, period when large palaces were built and surrounded by magnificent gardens, fit residences for great Tokugawa feudal lords. Great sums were expended on collecting stones from all parts of country, and often garden would be left unfinished until exact stone suited to express required feeling or to complete miniature natural scene had been procured. (309)
* 1798, work mentioning bonsan defines as "amusing onseself by reconstructing high mountains and famous rivers." (310)
* 1706, coffee trees sent to botanical garden in Amsterdam from Sri Lanka (where Dutch had only recently managed
to establish plantations, breaking an ancient Arab monopoly). Single tree survived, which was parent of a tree
at conservatory in Paris. (In 1723, single offspring from Paris tree would be carried to Martinique, which
yielded thousands of trees there by 1777. Martinique plantations became source of first plants to be taken to
various coffee-growing regions of South America.)
* 1725, book about how to dwarf trees by George Liegelsteiner, court gardener of Archbishop of Salzburg, Austria. Results look like very beautiful big trees, but only much smaller due to understanding of tree physiology: how to shorten roots and transplant trees often, how to shorten branches, etc. (312)
* 1727, English translation of notes by Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716) mentioned dwarf tree growing over rock seen in Japan c.1691. French and Dutch translations followed.
* 1749, first complete description of Chinese garden published in Paris in letter from Père Attiret, one of several Jesuits employed as painter by emperor in Beijing. (313)
* By 1750, earliest colonial-American-made flowerpot was produced in Norwich, Connecticut. (314)
* Between 500 and 1750 C.E. alone some 187 junks drifted from Japan to the Americas on Kuroshio ("Black Current"), strong clockwise-moving waters in North Pacific, up from Taiwan, arcing past Japan and Southeast Alaska and down the northwest coast. Between 1260 and 1650, five of those junks had then been sent westward on California Current to wash up in Hawaii, their crews marrying into Hawaiian aristocracy, leaving their imprint on cultural development of those islands. (315)
* 1753, first edition of Carl Linnaeus' Species Plantarum, built on various ideas of others (including John Ray) and was primary starting point of binomial plant and animal nomenclature as it exists today.
* By second half of 18th cent. topiary had become synonymous w/all that was old-fashioned or in bad taste, and was contrary to rising natural landscape movement. Critics of frightingly egalitarian topiary actually ended up producing catalogues of ideas. Also, symmetry in gardens was abandoned and eventually picturesque, romantic landscape garden became only acceptable form. Greenhouses became architecturally beautiful decorations, less strictly adhering to classical rules. (316)
* According to popular legend, garden designer who created English landscape was "Capability" Brown, synonymous w/rolling parkland, clumps of trees, serpentine lakes and meandering paths, because Brown was so prolific that for more than three decades he zigzagged the country creating hundreds of gardens for the rich. His landscapes were at forefront of fashion, but in so doing he razed magnificent Elizabethan knot gardens, opulent baroque parterres, sculpted Renaissance terraces and marching avenues. His work was epitome of natural landscapes begun in late 17th cent. w/introduction of meandering paths which changed experience of garden visitor from "wondering" at parterres, fountains or flower displays to "wandering." Some garden owners, who were marginalised from politics, wielded power on their land and created gardens full of political or allegorical meanings. (317)
* Chinese porcelain and tea among products shipped via London (or sometimes smuggled directly) to colonial America in return for large quantities of potent and desirable Appalachian ginseng root. (318)
* 1787, HMS Bounty sailed to the South Seas, rigged up to carry 1,015 breadfruit seedlings in clay flowerpots from Tahiti to the West Indies. A watering system was devised, as was way of getting sunlight into the lower hold of the ship. Breadfruit was intended to provide cheap food for local slave labor. (Potted plants were cast into ocean during infamous mutiny in 1789. Four years after that, however, the Providence would accomplish delivery.) (319)
* 1793-94, English Ambassador Lord George Macartney made passing reference to dwarf tree culture primarily propagated via air layering seen during failed mission to Peking, and Scottish botanist James Main recorded details of making dwarfed forest-trees in Canton, including use of wire to shape stem and branches, and elm and Ficus being most common chosen for this and kept 12-15" tall, mostly in rectangular pots 12-14"x8"x5".