A  SUGGESTED  TIMELINE
for the Development of Magical Miniature Landscapes,
NOTES

© 2005-2017  Robert J. Baran
All Rights Reserved.




Up to Year 1
1 to 899
900 to 1499
1500 to 1799
1800 to 1999
2000 to present
Notes (cont.)



Baran, Robert J.  "A Suggested Timeline for the Development of Magical Miniature Landscapes,"
http://www.magiminiland.org/BigPicture/Timeline4.html, version dated 17 June 2017.



NOTES


UP TO YEAR 1 C.E.

    (1)   "Pottery 20,000 Years Old Found In A Chinese Cave," Huffington Post, 28 June 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/28/pottery-20000-years-old_n_1635079.html.
    (2)   Palmer, Jason  "'Oldest' pottery in China," BBC News, 1 June 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8077168.stm.
    (3)   Chi, Zhang  "The discovery of early pottery in China," Documenta Praehistorica XXIX, http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf29/29chi.pdf.
    (4)   "Pottery and Porcelain," China.org.cn, http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/frankfortbooks/182701.htm.
    (5)   "Last Glacial Period," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_glacial_period, esp. notes 12 and 13; "Last Glacial Maximum," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_Glacial_Maximum.
    (6)   Smithsonian Timelines of History (London, New York, Melbourne, Munich, and Delhi: Dorling Kindersley Limited; 2011), pg. 24.
    (7)   "Varied and Colorful Neolithic Culture with Regional Flavor," China.org.cn, translated by Shao Da, March 21, 2003.
    (8)   Smithsonian Timelines of History, pg. 24.
    (9)   James, Peter and Nick Thorpe  Ancient Inventions (New York: Ballantine Books; 1994), pp. 300-301; Keally, Charles T.  "Bad Science and the Distortion of History: Radiocarbon Dating in Japanese Archaeology," Sophia International Review, no. 26, 2004.
  (10)   Song Nai Rhee "Introduction to Japan and Korea," in Fagan, Brian M. (ed.) The Oxford Companion to Archaeology (New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1996), pg. 359.
  (11)   Lienhard, John H.  "No. 359: The Dolni Vestonice Ceramics," http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi359.htm.
  (12)   James and Thorpe, pg. 300.
  (13)   Garofalo, Michael P.  "The History of Gardening: A Timeline From Ancient Times to the Twentieth Century," http://www.gardendigest.com/timegl.htm.
  (14)   Levins, Sandy  "The Use, Value and Theft of 18th-Century Garden Tools" http://historiccamdencounty.com/ccnews69.shtml.
  (15)   Barker, Vicki  "In Britain, A Census Goes Deep Into The Woods," NPR, Sept. 3, 2009, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=112488649.
  (16)   Song Nai Rhee in Oxford Archaeology, pg. 359.
  (17)   Watson, William  Pre-Tang Ceramics of China, Chinese Pottery from 4000 BC to 600 AD (London: Faber and Faber Limited; 1991), pg. 54.
  (18)   Smithsonian Timelines of History, pg. 24.
  (19)   Wood, Frances  A Companion to China (New York: St. Martin's Press; 1988), pp. 52-54; Smithsonian Timelines of History, pg. 24.
  (20)   Elias, Tom  "Rain Flower Pebbles," VSANA, Viewing Stone Association of North America, December 2012, http://www.vsana.org/archives-articles.html, accessed 30 Dec 2012.
  (21)   Baillie, Mike  "Did Asteroids and Comets Turn the Tides of Civilization?," from DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY, July/August 1999, http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/0499toc/chaos.shtml, per CCNet DIGEST, 7 July 1999, http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc070799.html.
  (22)   Zhou, Jixu  "The Rise of Agricultural Civilization in China: The Dispartiy between Archaeological Discovery and the Documentary Record and Its Explanation," http://sino-platonic.org/complete/spp175_chinese_civilization_agriculture.pdf, Sino-Platonic Papers, Number 175, December, 2006.
  (23)   Lust, John  The Herb Book (New York: Bantam Books, 1974), pg. 609.
  (24)   Erlitou culture, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erlitou.
  (25)   Hooker, Richard  "Ancient Japan: Jomon & Yayoi,".
  (26)   Mansfield, Stephen  Japanese Stone Gardens -- Origins, Meaning, Form (Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing, 2009), pp. 12-13.
  (27)   Garofalo, Michael P.
  (28)   Parpola, Asko  Study of the Indus Script, pg. 30.  (50th ICES Tokyo Session, 19 May 2005); Bronze Age, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age.
  (29)   Bremness, Lesley  The Complete Book of Herbs (NY: Viking Studio Books, 1988), pg. 239.
  (30)   Baillie, "Did Asteroids and Comets Turn the Tides of Civilization?"
  (31)   Bronze Age, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age.
  (32)   Koreshoff, Deborah R.  Bonsai: Its Art, Science, History and Philosophy (Brisbane, Australia: Boolarong Publications, 1984), pg. 3.
  (33)   Folsom, J. (ed.)  "Plant Trivia Timeline," http://www.huntington.org/BotanicalDiv/Timeline.html.
  (34)   Lin, Kuo-cheng  Miniature Bonsai, A Complete Guide to Cultivating Tiny Bonsai (Taipei: Hilit Publishing Co., Ltd.; 1987. First English edition: January 1995), pg. 29.
  (35)   James and Thorpe, pp. 275-276.
  (36)   History of the Chrysanthemum, National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., USA.
  (37)   Wang, Joseph Cho  The Chinese Garden (New York: Oxford University Press; 1998), pp. 1-2.
  (38)   Roberts, J.A.G.  A Concise History of China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1999), pp. xiii, 8.
  (39)   Stuart, Jan  "Where Chinese Art Stands: A History of Display Pedestals for Rocks," in Mowry, Robert D.  World Within Worlds, The Richard Rosenblum Collection of Chinese Scholars' Rocks (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums; 1997), pp. 86, 103.
  (40)   Temple, Robert  The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery & Invention (Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions; 1986, 1998, 2007), pp. 103-104.
  (41)   Baillie, "Did Asteroids and Comets Turn the Tides of Civilization?"
  (42)   Levins, Sandy.
  (43)   Mansfield, pg. 15.
  (44)   Temple, pg. 26; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed_drill.
  (45)   http://www.magiminiland.org/BigPicture/Anomalies.html#Pharoah.
  (46)   Song Nai Rhee in Oxford Archaeology, pg. 360.
  (47)   Thacker, Christopher  The History of Gardens (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press; 1979), pp. 13-14; Trager, James  The People's Chronology (New York: Henry Holt and Company; 1992, 1994), pp. 7-8; Janick, Jules  "Ancient Egyptian Agriculture and the Origins of Horticulture" from "History of Horticulture," Purdue University, 2002, http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture06/lec06.html
  (48)   James and Thorpe, pp. 566-567.
  (49)   Koreshoff, pg. 32.
  (50)   Janick, Jules  "History of Agricultural and Horticultural Technology in Asia" from "History of Horticulture," Purdue University, 2002, http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture12/lec12.html; James and Thorpe, pg. 276.
  (51)   Trager, pg. 9.
  (52)   Taylor, Norman (ed.)  Taylor's Encyclopedia of Gardening (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1961.  Fourth edition), pg. 461.
  (53)   Dev, Sukh "Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples," Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Oct;107(10):783-9.
  (54)   Trager, pg. 12.
  (55)   James and Thorpe, pg. 567.
  (56)   Trager, pp. 12, 13, 21.
  (57)   James and Thorpe, pp. 572-574; Thacker, pp. 16-17. Cf. Romer, John and Elizabeth  The Seven Wonders of the World, A History of the Modern Imagination (London: Seven Dials, Cassell & Co.; 1995. Paperback edition, 2000), esp. pp. 113-117, which state, summarized, that there are no known contemporary records of the Hanging Gardens (a mistranslation of a term which is closer in meaning to "farmer's terrace") despite 1) existence of detailed city records and 2) Nebuchadnezzar's marriage to Princess Amytis soldering a vital alliance between Media and Babylonia that had broken Assyria for ever and prompted Babylon's rebuilding. All early records of the Hanging Gardens are preserved as quotes in the writings of later classical historians, beginning at least two centuries after the Gardens' alleged existence. The companion descriptions there of the city of Babylon are themselves somewhat steeped in literary exaggeration by then. Widespread Middle Eastern traditions of the Garden of Eden seem to have also influenced the image of the Hanging Gardens which developed.
  (58)   Bridgwater, William (ed.)  The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia (New York: The Viking Press; 1953, 1960, 1968. Third edition), pp. 594, 1070; Roberts, pp. 16-17.
  (59)   Bridgwater, pg. 239; Roberts, pp. 14-15.
  (60)   http://www.magiminiland.org/BigPicture/Pen.html
  (61)   Teresi, Dick  Lost Discoveries, The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya (New York: Simon & Schuster; 2002), pp. 360-362.
  (62)   Schafer, Edward H.   Tu Wan's Stone Catalogue of Cloudy Forest (Floating World Edition; 2005. First published in 1961 by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles), pp. 1-2; The Tribute of Yu and the Nine Provinces of Ancient China; Chinese History - Xia Dynasty ? (17th to 15th cent. BC); Elias, Tom  "Viewing Stones or Gongshi," April 2013, http://www.vsana.org/archives-articles.html.
  (63)   Chan, Peter  Bonsai, The Art of Growing and Keeping Miniature Trees (Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Books Inc.; 1985), pg. 20; James and Thorpe, pg. 570.
  (64)   "P'eng-lai (The Isles of the Blessed)," http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/taoism/peng.html.
  (65)   Brown, Claudia  "Chinese Scholars' Rocks and the Land of Immortals: Some Insights from Painting" in Mowry, pg. 76, note 11.
  (66)   Erickson, Susan N.  "Boshanlu--Mountain Censers of the Western Han Period: A Typological and Iconological Analysis," The Archives of Asian Art 45 (Dec, 1992), pg. 19.
  (67)   Temple, pp. 14, 26, 173-174.
  (68)   Kerr, Rose (ed.)  Chinese Art and Design, Art Objects in Ritual and Daily Life (Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press; 1991), pg. 74.
  (69)   Wang, pg. 2; Thacker, pg. 56; Saussy, Haun  "Empires, Gardens, Collections: How Each Explains the Other," in Tong, Q. S.  Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge (Hong Kong University Press; 2007), pp. 148-150; Chinnery, John  Treasures of China, The Glories of the Kingdom of the Dragon (London: Duncan Baird Publishers Ltd.; 2008), pg. 51; "P'eng-lai (The Isles of the Blessed)."
  (70)   Baillie, "Did Asteroids and Comets Turn the Tides of Civilization?"
  (71)   Watson, pp. 170-171.
  (72)   Wang, pp. 3-4.
  (73)   Trager, pg. 29; Bretschneider, E., M.D.  Botanicon Sinicum (as Article III in Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1881, New Series, Vol. XVI, Part I, Shanghai, 1882), pp. 28, 29; Bremness, pg. 8; Fessler, Loren and the Editors of LIFE  China (New York: Time Incorporated; 1963), pp. 44-45; Wood, pg. 61.
  (74)   Stein, pg. 293, note 124. Pg. 64 states that "The island of Fang-hu is better known under its later attested name of Fang-chang. Under the Han it was paired with another island, called Hu-liang."
  (75)   Trager, pg. 29; Teresi, pg. 239; Temple, pg. 162.
  (76)   Janick,  "Timeline of Japanese History."
  (77)   Chen, Lifang and Yu Sianglin  The Garden Art of China (Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1986), pg. 8.
  (78)   Bridgwater, pg. 153; Fitzgerald, C.P.  China, A Short Cultural History (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985), pg. 276.
  (79)   Teresi, pg. 237.
  (80)   Trager, pg. 16.
  (81)   Thacker, pg. 18; Trager, pg. 23.
  (82)   James and Thorpe, pg. 568; Trager, pg. 25.
  (83)   "Theophrastus," from Gardener's Dictionary, http://www.answers.com/topic/theophrastus.
  (84)   Song Nai Rhee in Oxford Archaeology, pg. 360.
  (85)   Dev, Sukh "Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples".
  (86)   "Brief History of Vietnam".
  (87)   Song Nai Rhee in Oxford Archaeology, pg. 361.
  (88)   Kerr, pg. 180.
  (89)   Bretschneider, Bot. Sin., pp. 27-29.
  (90)   Stuart in Mowry, pp. 88, 103.
  (91)   Janick, Jules "Timeline of Japanese History," http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/readings/t000013.htm ; Churchill, Dr. Robert "Handbook For the Study of Eastern Literatures, Ancient Japan," http://mockingbird.creighton.edu/english/worldlit/wldocs/churchill/japan.htm.
  (92)   Elias, Tom  "Viewing Stones or Gongshi," April 2013.
  (93)   James and Thorpe, pg. 564; "Cutting and Pruning Tools," Museum of Garden History, http://www.cix.co.uk/~museumgh/tools.htm.


YEAR 1 to 899 C.E.

  (94)   Fitzgerald, pp. 265-266.
  (95)  
  (96)   Chen and Yu, pg. 8.
  (97)   Michaelson, Carol  Gilded Dragons, Buried Treasures From China's Golden Ages (London: British Museum Company Ltd.; 1999), pp. 94-95; Chinnery, pp. 52-53.
  (98)   James and Thorpe, pg. 146.
  (99)   Bayrd, Edwin and the Editors of the Newsweek Book Division  Kyoto (New York: Newsweek; 1974), pg. 26; "Ancient Japan," http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/ANCJAPAN/ANJAPAN1.HTM.
(100)   Raver, Anne "A pared-down look for waist-high gardens," The New York Times, June 18, 2004, http://www.azcentral.com/home/garden/articles/0618gardenpots18.html; Yi-Fu Tuan, Dominance and Affection: The Making of Pets (New Haven and London: Yale University Press), pg. 60; Crowder, Christopher and Michaeljon Ashworth  Topiary, Design and Technique (Wiltshire, England: The Crowood Press Ltd.; 2006), pp. 9-10, 11; Woods, May and Arete Swartz Warren  Glass Houses, A History of Greenhouses, Orangeries and Conservatories (London: Aurum Press, 1988), pg. 3.
(101)   Brown, Delmer M.  The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 1 Ancient Japan (Cambridge University Press, 1993), pg. 25.
(102)   The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen (Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.; 1991.  Based on material from The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion, © 1989 by Shambhala Publications, Inc., a translation of Lexicon de östlichen Weisheitslehren, edited by Stephan Schumacher and Gert Woerner, © 1986 by Otto-Wilhelm-Barth Verlag, a division of Scherz Verlag, Bern and Munich.  Translated by Michael H. Kohn.  First edition.), pp. 9-10; Carr, Rachel E.  Stepping Stones to Japanese Floral Art (Tokyo: Tokyo News Service, Ltd.; 1957.  Revised and Enlarged Edition), pg. 2.
(103)   James and Thorpe, pg. 120.
(104)   Janick, Jules  "Lectures 12-13, History of Agricultural and Horticultural Technology in Asia," http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture12/lec12l.html; "Sino-Roman relations," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_embassies_to_China.
(105)   Schafer, pp. 3-4.
(106)   Churchill,  http://mockingbird.creighton.edu/english/worldlit/wldocs/churchill/japan.htm.
(107)   Chen and Yu, pp. 9, 12; Wood, pg. 63.
(108)   Temple, pp. 107-108.
(109)   Fitzgerald, pp. 266, 279; Chen and Yu, pg. 28.
(110)   Dev, Sukh "Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples".
(111)   Stuart in Mowry, pg. 88.
(112)   Hoare, James  Culture Smart! Korea (Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center Publishing; ©2005 Kuperard), pg. 17; Song Nai Rhee in Oxford Archaeology, pg. 362.
(113)   Trager, pg. 48.
(114)   James and Thorpe, pg. 304.
(115)   Zhao Qingquan  Penjing: The Chinese Art of Bonsai (Shanghai Press; 2012), pg. 31; Wang, Joseph Cho, pp. 9-13, 52.
(116)   Lee, Jeong-Kyu  "Confucian Thought Affecting Leadership and Organizational Culture of Korean Higher Education," http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan003631.pdf.
(117)   Thacker, pg. 55.
(118)   "Japanese Chronological Table," http://www.rekihaku.ac.jp/e_ctable/index.html.
(119)   Thacker, pg. 67; Mansfield, pg. 15.
(120)   Chan, Bonsai, pg. 18
(121)   Nienhauser, William H., Jr. (ed.)  The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986), pg. 766; Fitzgerald, pp. 283; Kobayashi, Tadashi  An Enduring Vision, 17th- to 20th-Century Japanese Painting from the Gitter-Yelen Collection (New Orleans Museum of Art; 2002), pg. 119.
(122)   Baillie, "Did Asteroids and Comets Turn the Tides of Civilization?"; Abbott, Dallas "2013 PP on 530's Event and Marine Diatoms in GISP2 Ice Core."; Wall, Mike "Why Halley's Comet May Be Linked to Famine 1,500 Years Ago," Live Science, Dcember 18, 2013; "The Dust Veil AD 536," Medieval Histories, 7 May 2014.
(123)   Sullivan, Michael  The Arts of China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; 1967, 1973, 1977, 1984. Third Edition), pp. 88-89; Chen, Lifang and Yu Sianglin  The Garden Art of China (Portland, OR: Timber Press; 1986), pp. 10-12 lists Ancient Paintings as a 5th century work with the six principles of atmosphere, layout, figure, color, site, and modeling.
(124)   Bretschneider, Bot. Sin., pp. 93-94.
(125)   Jellicoe, Sir Geoffrey and Susan Jellicoe (Consult. eds.) and Patrick Goode and Michael Lancaster (Exec. eds.)  The Oxford Companion to Gardens (Oxford University Press; 1986), pg. 293; Mansfield, pg. 15.
(126)   Koehn, Alfred  Bonkei, Japanese Tray Landscapes (Tokyo: Foreign Affairs Association of Japan; 1952), pg. 3.
(127)   James and Thorpe, pg. 276.
(128)   Ragle, Larry and Nina  "Korean-American Soosuk Club of Southern California, April 2 & 3, 2011," GSBF Newsletter, May/June 2011, pp. 28-29, http://www.gsbf-bonsai.org/magazines/2011/v34_03.pdf.
(129)   Chinnery, pg. 82; Watson, pg. 60.
(130)   Stuart in Mowry, pg. 89.
(131)   Trager, pg. 60.
(132)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/Chinato960.html; http://www.magiminiland.org/BigPicture/Anomalies.html#Overnight; Michaelson, pg. 80; Kerr, pg. 172.
(133)   Shambhala, pp. 194-195.
(134)   Bayrd, pg. 162; Koehn, pg. 4.
(135)   Yanagisawa, Sōen  Tray Landscapes (Bonkei and Bonseki) (Tokyo: Japan Travel Bureau, 1955, 1956, 1962, 1966.  5th edition), pp. 171-173; Stein, Rolf A.  The World in Miniature: Container Gardens and Dwellings in Far Eastern Religious Thought (Standford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990), pg. 258; Paine, Robert Treat and Alexander Soper  The Art and Architecture of Japan (NY: Penguin Books; 1981, Third edition), pg. 276; Song Nai Rhee in Oxford Archaeology, pg. 361.
(136)   Bartlett, Harley Harris and Hide Shohara  Japanese Botany During the Period of Wood-Block Printing (Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop; 1961. Reprinted from ASA GRAY BULLETIN, N.S. 3:289-561, Spring 1961), pg. 21.
(137)   Carr, pp. 2-3; Michaelson, pg. 90.
(138)   Michaelson, pg. 81.
(139)   "Korea" in Asia-Pacific Region, http://www.bonsai-wbff.org/rasia.shtml ; "Korean History," http://asiarecipe.com/korhistory.html; Padrini, Chiara  "The Suseok," Bonsai Magazine, January/February/March 2011, Vol. 50, No. 1, pg. 42, translated by Kathy Coffman; "Uisang," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uisang; "Uisang," http://www.bookrags.com/research/isang-eorl-14/.
(140)   "Vietnam," http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Vietnam.html#Socialist%20Republic%20of%20Vietnam.
(141)   Shambhala, pp. 94-96.
(142)   Jackson, Anna and Amin Jaffer (ed.)  Encounters, The Meeting of Asia and Europe, 1500-1800 (London: V&A Publications; 2004), pg. 20; Michaelson, pp. 80, 81, and 85, note 3.
(143a)   Li, Shuhua  "A Historical Study of the Names of Chinese Tray Landscapes," J.JILA 58(5), 1995, pg. 64.
(143b)   Wu, Yee-Sun  Man Lung Artistic Pot Plants (Hong Kong: Wing-Lung Bank Ltd.; Enlarged second edition, June 1974), pg. 62.
(144)   Kerr, pg. 180.
(145)   Wang, Joseph Cho, pg. 14.
(146)   Bretschneider, Bot. Sin., pg. 97.
(147)   Bretschneider, Bot. Sin., pg. 97.
(148)   Yi, O-nyoung  Smaller Is Better, Japan's Mastery of the Miniature (Chijimi shikoo no Nihonjin) (Tokyo: Kodansha International, Ltd., 1982.  First English edition 1984), pg. 77-78; Thacker, pg. 67.
(149)   Kobayashi, Kunio  Bonsai (PIE International; 2011), pg. 15.
(150)   Tucker, John A.  "Japanese Views of Nature and the Environment" in Selin, Helaine (ed.)  Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-western Cultures (Springer; 2003), pg. 163.
(151)   Thacker, pg. 81.  See also pp. 172-188, "A Note on Medieval Gardens" in Welch, Alice Kemp  Of six mediaeval women; to which is added A note on mediaeval gardens (London: Macmillan; 1913), http://ia340906.us.archive.org/3/items/ofsixmediaevalwo00welcuoft/ofsixmediaevalwo00welcuoft_djvu.txt.
(152)   Shambhala, pp. 166-167.
(153)   Chinnery, pp. 73, 97.
(154)   Zhao Qingquan  Penjing: The Chinese Art of Bonsai, pg. 32.
(155)   Hu, Yunhua  Penjing, The Chinese Art of Miniature Gardens (Portland, OR: Timber Press; ©1982 China Pictorial), pg. 20.
(156)   Hu, Yunhua  Chinese Penjing, Miniature Trees and Landscapes (Portland, OR: Timber Press; ©1987 Wan Li Books Co., Ltd., Hong Kong), pg. 130; Wood, pg. 69; Zhao Qingquan  Penjing: The Chinese Art of Bonsai, pg. 33.
(157)   Zhao Qingquan  Penjing: The Chinese Art of Bonsai, pg. 33.
(158)   Tucker, John A., pg. 168.
(159)   Kuitert, Wybe  Themes in the History of Japanese Garden Art (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2002, 1988), pp. 119, 60; Mansfield, pp. 57, 60.
(160)   Carr, pp. 3, 4.
(161)   Michaelson, pg. 90.


YEAR 900 to 1499 C.E.

(162)   Mason, Lark E.  Asian Art (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Antique Collectors' Club Ltd.; 2002), pg. 20.
(163)   Stuart in Mowry, pg. 89.
(164)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800.html.
(165)   Mason, pg. 20.
(166)   Tucker, John A., pg. 168.
(167)   Nippon Bonsai Association  Classic Bonsai of Japan (Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, 1989), pg. 140; "Japanese literature." Encyclop√¶dia Britannica. 2008. Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Online. Accessed 31 Aug. 2008, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/301194/Japanese-literature/61854/Prose.
(168)   Mansfield, pg. 20.
(169)   Hoare, pg. 19. 
(170)   Coussins, Craig  The Bonsai School (Bideford, Devon: D&S Books; 2002), pg. 41; Phan Van Lit with Lew Buller  Mountains in the Sea (Portland, OR: Timber Press; 2001), pp. 41, 43, 82, 84, 105, 119; "Brief History of Vietnam"; Stein, pg. 13, note 16 on pg. 277.
(171a)   Samson, Isabelle and Rémy Samson  The Creative Art of Bonsai (London: Ward Lock Ltd.; 1986), pg. 8.
(171b)   Li, Shuhua  "A Historical Study," pg. 64.
(172)   Neinhauser, William H., Jr. (ed.)  The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press; 1986), pp. 729-730; Hu, 1987, pg. 130; Fong, Wen C. and James C.Y. Watt  Possessing the Past, Treasures from the National Palace Museum, Tapei (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Taipei: National Palace Museum; 1996), pp. 463-464; Elias, Tom  "Viewing Stones or Gongshi," April 2013, http://www.vsana.org/archives-articles.html.
(173)   Thacker, pp. 67-68; Mansfield, pp. 22-23.
(174)   "Brief History of Vietnam"; Phan, pp. 45-46.
(175)   Tamboli, P. M. and Y. L Nene, "http://www.agri-history.org/Science%20in%20India%20with%20Special%20Reference%20to%20Agriculture.pdf", pg. 7.
(176)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/China960to1644.html.
(177)   Smith, Bradley and Wan-go Weng  China: A History in Art (A Gemini Smith Inc. book, published by Doubleday & Company, Inc.; 1979), pg. 76; James and Thorpe, pg. 570.
(178)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800.html.
(179)   Hu, 1987, pp. 85, 130; Bretschneider, Bot Sin., pg. 207.
(180)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800.html.
(181)   Hu, 1987, pg. 130; Stuart in Mowry, pg. 89.
(182)   Kuitert, pg. 48.
(183)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/Japanto1600.html.
(184)   Jackson and Jeffer (ed.), pg. 70.
(185)   "Korea" in Asia-Pacific Region, http://www.bonsai-wbff.org/rasia.shtml ; "Korean History," http://asiarecipe.com/korhistory.html.
(186)   "Botany," Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies, http://www.islamic-study.org/botany.htm ; Chiplis, Dan "A Chronology of Potted Tree Development Emphasizing Bonsai," Bonsai, BCI, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, May/June 1987, pg. 3.
(187)   Chinnery, pg. 127.
(188)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/China960to1644.html
(189)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800.html#MLL
(190)   Sullivan, Michael  The Arts of China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; 1967, 1973, 1977, 1984. Third edition) pg. 193; Cahill, James  Scholar Painters of Japan: The Nanga School (New York: Asia House Gallery; 1972), pg. 9; Chinnery, pg. 131.
(191)   Trager, pg. 117.
(192)   Kuitert, pp. 70, 82; Covello, Vincent T. and Yuji Yoshimura  The Japanese Art of Stone Appreciation, Suiseki and Its Use with Bonsai (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1984), pg. 20; Nippon Bonsai Association, pg. 144; "Suiseki: A World of Understated Beauty within Natural Stone," NHK World on Demand: Core Kyoto, broadcast on-line on January 20, 2016; Kobayashi, An Enduring Vision, pp. 119-120; Sugiyama, Mary  "Hosokawa Bonseki School," Ikebana International Magazine, No. 19, Fall-Winter 1966, pp. 30-32;
(193)   Trager, pg. 118.
(194)   "Trân Dynasty," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tr%E1%BA%A7n_Dynasty; Phan, pp. 49-50.
(195)   "A lovely Spring morning in Rome's Botanical garden," http://www.discover.it/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=207
(196a)   Yeager, Ray "Masters of the Daiza," California Aiseki Kai, Vol. 24, Issue 7, July 2006, pg. 6, http://www.aisekikai.com/resources/july+newsletter+06.pdf; Kerr, pg. 228; jackwk in 31 Jul 2009 8:40 am posting to Internet Bonsai Club, http://ibonsaiclub.forumotion.com/suiseki-viewing-stones-and-scholars-rocks-f2/chinese-lingbi-stone-photos-culture-introduction-t1028.htm?sid=85f1d442de52fea3f0137f11010cbafd.
(196b)   Li, Shuhua  "A Historical Study," pg. 64.
(197)   "The Black Death: Bubonic Plague"; "Black Death"; "Famine"; Herlihy, David  The Black Death and the Transformation of the West (Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1997), pg. 21.
(198)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/China960to1644.html.
(199)   Chinnery, pg. 144.
(200)   Wang, Joseph Cho, pp. 14-15.
(201)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/Japanto1600.html.
(202)   Nippon Bonsai Association, pg. 145.
(203)   Yi, pg. 89; Nippon Bonsai Association, pg. 144.
(204)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/Japanto1600.html.
(205)   Redding, Myron  "Art of the Mud Man," http://www.artofbonsai.org/feature_articles/mudman.php.
(206)   Nippon Bonsai Association, pg. 145.
(207)   Mansfield, pp. 27-28, 34, 57.
(208)   James and Thrope, pg. 563.
(209)   "Great Famine of 1315-1317".
(210)   Woods and Warren, pg. 5.
(211)   "The Black Death: Bubonic Plague"; "Black Death"; "USU 1320: History and Civilization: Section 6, The Black Death"; Herlihy, pp. 17, 19, 25, 32, 33, 44-46, 50-51, 55, 60-62, 69-72, 77-80.
(212)   Titley, Norah and Frances Wood  Oriental Gardens, An Illustrated History (San Francisco: Chronicle Books; 1991), pg. 124; Waren, William  Thai Garden Style (Singapore: Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd, 1996), pp. 13-14, 16.
(213)   Hoare, pg. 19.
(214)   Menzies, Gavin  1421, The Year China Discovered America (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.; 2002, 2003), pp. 29-36, 40, 47-55; Peters, Mike  "Maps, money and DNA" and "Nailing their colors to the mast," July 9, 2010, Chinadaily.com, pg. 18, http://www.asiaticfathers.com/docs/chinadaily.pdf.
(215)   Hu, 1987, pp. 167, 169; Wu, pg. 66; Mason, pg. 140; Hu, Yunhua Penjing, The Chinese Art of Miniature Gardens (Portland, OR: Timber Press; ©1982 China Pictorial), pg. 93.
(216a)   Stuart in Mowry, pg. 89.
(216b)   Li, Shuhua  "A Historical Study," pg. 64.
(217)   James and Thorpe, pg. 571.
(218)   Kuitert, pp. 72, 84; Yanagisawa, pp. 79, 173, 175, 177-180; Covello and Yoshimura, pp. 23-24; http://www.tobunken.go.jp/~bijutsu/english/publications/bijutukenkyu/abstract/43.html; http://www.aisf.or.jp/~jaanus/deta/c/chigaidana.htm; http://books.google.com/books?id=MoRVyZYAo4gC&pg=PA496&dq=Okazariki&sig=-CUUnzdiAQ6qjr1DI-L-Er8dRGg; Sugiyama, pp. 30, 32.
(219)   Covello and Yoshimura, pg. 22.
(220)   Redding, "Art of the Mud Man."
(221)   Kuitert, pg. 88; Paine and Soper, pp. 157, 412-513.
(222)   Mansfield, pg. 20.
(223)   Jellicoe (eds.), pg. 295; Thacker, pg. 71; Mansfield, pg. 46.
(224)   Phan, pp. 51-52.
(225)   James and Thorpe, pg. 569.
(226)   "Korea" in Asia-Pacific Region, http://www.bonsai-wbff.org/rasia.shtml ; "Korean History," http://asiarecipe.com/korhistory.html.
(227)   Jellicoe (eds.), pg. 557; Crowder and Ashworth, pp. 13, 15.
(228)   "A lovely Spring morning in Rome's Botanical garden," http://www.discover.it/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=207.
(229)   Woods and Warren, pg. 5.
(230)   Crowder and Ashworth, pg. 16; possible container plants in woodblock cuts on pp. 112 and 115?
(231)   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deforestation



YEAR 1500 to 1799 C.E.

(232)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800.html
(233)   Hrdlickovi, V.aZ. "The Garden of the Dragon Flowers," Bonsai Magazine, BCI, Vol. XXVIII, No. 3, May/June 1989, pg. 20.  Translated by Vladamir Mandl.  Reprinted from Vol. VII, No. 1, 1987 of the publication of the Bonsai Club of Praha (Prague, Czechoslovakia).
(234)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800.html.
(235)   Hu, 1982, pg. 22; "Jiading Establishes a Museum of Bamboo Carving," http://www.orientations.com.hk/hmnov07.htm; "Jiading Bamboo Carving," http://www.malu.gov.cn/en/e-shrw-zysx-jdzk.htm; "Bamboo museum celebrates ancient art form," http://english.zjol.com.cn/05english/system/2008/01/07/009119908_01.shtml.
(236)   Albert, Karen  "A Chinese Penjing Artist Visits America," Bonsai Magazine, BCI, July/August 1992, pg. 13.
(237)   Hua Hanmin, Chinese Gardening; Jiansu Fine Arts Publishing House; pg. 78; Lee, Bill "Introduction to Zisha Teapots," http://www.chinaflairtea.com/introteapots.html; "Manufacture And Clay Of Chinese Teapots," http://www.thechineseteashop.com/manufacture.html.
(238)   Fong and Watt, pp. 462, 463.
(239)   Chinnery, pp. 168, 170; Clunas, Craig  "Nature and Ideology in Western Descriptions of the Chinese Garden" in Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim (ed.)  Nature and Ideology, Natural Garden Design in the Twentieth Century (Dumbarton Oaks; 1997), pg. 21.
(240)   Yanagisawa, pp. 79, 175, 177-180; Covello and Yoshimura, pp. 23-24.
(241)   1992 Keystone Arts Catalog, Pittsburgh, PA, pg. 7.
(242)   Thacker, pp. 75-76; Jackson and Jeffer (ed.), pg. 70.
(243)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/Japanto1600.html.
(244)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800.html.
(245)   Jackson and Jeffer (ed.), pg. 71.
(246)   Hoare, pp. 20-21.
(247)   Mansfield, pp. 22-23.
(248)   Jackson and Jeffer (ed.), pg. 92; Lim, Sunamita  Chinese Style: Living in Beauty and Prosperity (Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith; 2006), pp. 40, 42.
(249)   Temple, pp. 105-106.
(250)   James and Thorpe, pg. 569; Jellicoe (eds.), pg. 434; Raver "A pared-down look for waist-high gardens".
(251)   Bretschneider, Emil M.D.  History of European Botanical Discoveries in China (Leipzig: Zentral-Antiquariat; 1981. Reprint of the original 1898 edition. 2 volumes), pp. 6-7.
(252)   Woods and Warren, pp. 5, 7, 9.
(253)   Phan, pg. 53.
(254)   Folsom, J. (ed.)  "Plant Trivia Timeline".
(255)   Higgins, Adrian "A Potted History of Gardening," The Washington Post, June 2, 2005, http://www.aplacetotakeroot.com/potted.html.
(256)   "A lovely Spring morning in Rome's Botanical garden," http://www.discover.it/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=207.
(257)   "Watering Pots," Museum of Garden History, http://www.cix.co.uk/~museumgh/tools3.htm.
(258)   Jellicoe (eds.), pg. 558; Woods and Warren, pg. 11.
(259)   Jackson and Jeffer (ed.), pg. 101.
(260)   Cahill, pg. 10.
(261)   Hua Hanmin, Chinese Gardening; pg. 78.
(262)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800.html.
(263)   Stuart in Mowry, pg. 103.
(264)   Andrade, Tonio  How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century, Introduction, http://www.gutenberg-e.org/andrade/intro.html, and Chap. 6, http://www.gutenberg-e.org/andrade/andrade06.html, "Taiwan," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwan.
(265)   Naka, John Yoshio  Bonsai Techniques II (Bonsai Institute of California; 1982), pp. 304-305, 322; Katayama, Tei'ichi  The Mini-Bonsai Hobby (Tokyo: Japan Publications, Inc.; 1974), pp. 19-20; Chinnery, pg. 186.
(266)   "Taiwan," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwan.
(267)   Sze, Mai-Mai (ed.)  The Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1977. © 1956 Bollingen Foundation Inc.), pp. ix, xi; Thacker, pg. 58.
(268)   "Taiwan," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwan.
(269)   Hua Hanmin, Chinese Gardening; pg. 78.
(270)   Koreshoff, pg. 4.
(271)   Stuart in Mowry, pp. 92, 99.
(272)   Nippon Bonsai Association, pp. 142-143.
(273)   Thacker, pg. 75.
(274)   Sugiyama, Mary "Hosokawa Bonseki School," Ikebana International Magazine, No. 19, Fall-Winter 1966, pg. 30.
(275)   Kuitert, pg. 166; Goodman, Grant K.  Japan: The Dutch Experience (London: The Athlone Press; 1986), pg. 3; Kobayashi, An Enduring Vision, pg. 27.
(276)   "A Chronology of Japanese History".
(277)   Goodman, pp. 4-7.
(278)   McKamey, Lynn  "Dwarf Rhapis Bonsai Genuine Miniature Palms," International Bonsai, IBC, 1984 No. 1, pg. 14.
(279)   Covello and Yoshimura, pg. 24.
(280)   Naka, BT II, pp. 304-305.
(281)   Kobayashi, An Enduring Vision, pp. 119-120.
(282)   Naka, John and Richard K. Ota and Kenko Rokkaku  Bonsai Techniques for Satsuki (Ota Bonsai Nursery; 1979), pg. 32; Koreshoff, pg. 8.
(283)   Yi, pp. 79-80.
(284)   Nippon Bonsai Association, pg. 148.
(285)   Mansfield, pg. 34.
(286)   Woods and Warren, pg. 14.
(287)   Jackson and Jeffer (ed.), pg. 101.
(288)   Jackson and Jeffer (ed.), pp. 93, 94, 97-98.
(289)   Woods and Warren, pg. 31.
(290)   Woods and Warren, pg. 34.
(291)   Jellicoe (eds.), pg. 558; Crowder and Ashworth, pg. 22.
(292)   Wyss, Bob "In praise of the flowerpot," The Christian Science Monitor, August 18, 2004, http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0818/p14s02-liga.html; Trager, pg. 260; Woods and Warren, pp. 25-27.
(293)   Hu, 1987, pp. 167-169; Wu, pg. 66; Mason, pg. 142.
(294)   Chinnery, pg. 198.
(295a)   Li, Shuhua  "A Historical Study," pg. 64.
(295b)   Elias, Tom  "Chrysanthemum Stones," VSANA, Viewing Stone Association of North America, November 2012, http://www.vsana.org/archives-articles.html, accessed 30 Dec 2012.
(296)   Mowry, pp. 114, 172.
(297)   Chambers, William A Dissertation on Oriental Gardening, "The Fury of the Europeans," http://ringmar.net/europeanfury/?page_id=1212.
(298)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/China1644to1911.html.
(299)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Books/pre1800b.html.
(300)   Tucker, John A., pg. 170.
(301)   Trager, pg. 273.
(302)   Nozaki, Shinobu  Dwarf Trees (Bonsai) (Tokyo: Sanseido Company, Ltd.; 1940), pg. 23.
(303)   http://www.magiminiland.org/Paintings/Japan1600to1800.html.
(304)   Kobayashi, An Enduring Vision, pp. 120-121.
(305)   Hillier, Jack  Suzuki Harunobu (Philadelphia Museum of Art; 1970), pg. 11.
(306)   Cahill, pp. 9, 27, 36, 85, 87, 108, 112, 126; Kobayashi, An Enduring Vision, pg. 46.
(307)   Nippon Bonsai Association, pg. 150.
(308)   Nippon Bonsai Association, pp. 151-152.
(309)   Du Cane, Florence  The Flowers and Gardens of Japan (London: Adam & Charles Black, 1908), pg. 11.
(310)   Stein, pg. 11.
(311)   Folsom, J. (ed.)  "Plant Trivia Timeline".
(312)   http://www.magiminiland.org/BigPicture/Anomalies.html#Europe1700.
(313)   Keswick, Maggie Chinese Garden: History, Art & Architecture (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc.; 1978), pg. 9.
(314)   Wyss "In praise of the flowerpot."
(315)   Ebbesmeyer, Curtis and Eric Scigliano  "Born on a Black Current," June 16, 2009, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/Borne-on-a-Black-Current.html?c=y&page=2.
(316)   Jellicoe (eds.), pg. 558; Crowder and Ashworth, pg. 26; Woods and Warren, pg. 51.
(317)   Wulf, Andrea "Review: The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden by Tim Richardson," The Guardian, July 7, 2007, http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2007/jul/07/featuresreviews.guardianreview4.
(318)   Goldstein, Jonathan  Philadelphia and the China Trade, 1682-1846 (University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press; 1978), pp. 17-21.
(319)   Finholm, Valerie "The evolution of flowerpots taking root," The Hartford Courant, December 4, 2004, http://www.azcentral.com/home/garden/articles/1210flowerpot10.html; Folsom, J. (ed.)  "Plant Trivia Timeline"






Up to Year 1
1 to 899
900 to 1499
1500 to 1799
1800 to 1999
2000 to present
Notes (cont.)
 
Home  >  Bonsai History  >  Big Picture  >  Timeline IV